# Opportunistic Large Array Propagation Models: A Comprehensive Survey

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Continuum Model with Deterministic Channel Assumption

## 3. One-Dimensional Propagation Models of OLA-Based Networks

#### 3.1. Non-Overlapping 1D OLA Network

#### 3.2. Overlapping 1D OLA Network

#### 3.3. 1D OLA Network with Co-Locating Groups of Nodes

#### 3.4. Randomly Deployed 1D OLA Network

## 4. Two-Dimensional Propagation Models of OLA-Based Networks

#### 4.1. Overlapping 2D OLA Network

#### 4.2. Non-Overlapping Fixed Boundary 2D OLA Network with a Fixed Number of Nodes at Arbitrary Locations

#### 4.3. Non-Overlapping Fixed Boundary 2D OLA Network with a Random Number of Nodes with Arbitrary Locations

#### 4.4. Large-Scale 2D OLA Network with Random Boundaries

## 5. Multi-Packet OLA Transmission Networks

#### 5.1. 1D Multi-Packet OLA Network

#### 5.2. 2D Multi-Packet OLA Network

#### 5.3. 2D OLA Network with Multiple Sources

## 6. Energy-Efficient OLA Protocols

#### 6.1. OLA with Transmission Threshold (OLA-T)

#### 6.2. Alternating OLA-T (A-OLA-T)

#### 6.3. OLA Concentric Routing Algorithm (OLACRA)

#### 6.4. OLA Concentric Routing Algorithm with Threshold (OLACRA-T)

## 7. Future Directions

#### 7.1. Scheduling in OLA Networks with Multiple Routes

#### 7.2. OLA and Cooperative Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks

#### 7.3. Machine Learning and Deep Learning-Based Relay Selections in OLA Cooperative Networks

#### 7.4. Cooperation and Wireless-Powered Networks

#### 7.5. Backscatter-Aided Cooperative Transmissions

#### 7.6. Security for OLA Networks

## 8. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

5G | Fifth Generation |

B5G | Beyond Fifth Generation |

IoT | Internet-of-Things |

mMTC | massive machine-type communication |

CT | Cooperative Transmission |

OLA | Opportunistic Large Array |

IoT | Internet-of-Things |

mMTC | massive machine-type communication |

eMBB | enhanced mobile broadband |

D2D | Device-to-Device |

VMISO | Virtual Multiple-Input-Single-Output |

MISO | Multiple-Input-Single-Output |

SISO | Single-Input–Single-Output |

DF | Decode-and-Forward |

AF | Amplify-and-Forward |

MRC | Maximum Ratio Combining |

EGC | Equal Gain Combining |

SC | Selective Combining |

MAC | Medium Access Control |

1D | One-Dimensional |

2D | Two-Dimensional |

SDR | Software-Defined Radio |

SNR | Signal-to-Noise-Ratio |

PIR | Packet Insertion Rate |

UWSN | Underwater Sensor Network |

ML | Machine Learning |

DL | Deep learning |

BackCom | Backscatter Communication |

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**Figure 9.**Non-overlapping fixed boundary 2D OLA network with a fixed number of nodes at arbitrary locations.

**Figure 10.**Non-overlapping fixed boundary 2D OLA network with a random number of nodes at arbitrary locations.

Reference | Shape | Density | Node Locations | Set Boundary |
---|---|---|---|---|

[20] | Strip (2D) | Infinite | Fixed | Deterministic |

[14] | Disk (2D) | Infinite | Fixed | Deterministic |

[37] | Linear (1D) | Finite | Fixed | Non-overlapping |

[39] | Linear (1D) | Finite | Fixed | Overlapping |

[40] | Linear (1D) | Finite | Fixed (collocated) | Non-overlapping |

[41] | Linear (1D) | Finite | Random | Overlapping |

[42] | Strip (2D) | Finite | Fixed | Overlapping |

[43] | Strip (2D) | Finite | Random (fixed number) | Non-overlapping |

[44] | Strip (2D) | Finite | Random (random number) | Non-overlapping |

[45] | Strip (2D) | Finite | Random (random number) | Overlapping |

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Nawaz, F.; Kumar, H.; Hassan, S.A.; Jung, H.
Opportunistic Large Array Propagation Models: A Comprehensive Survey. *Sensors* **2021**, *21*, 4206.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s21124206

**AMA Style**

Nawaz F, Kumar H, Hassan SA, Jung H.
Opportunistic Large Array Propagation Models: A Comprehensive Survey. *Sensors*. 2021; 21(12):4206.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s21124206

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Nawaz, Farhan, Hemant Kumar, Syed Ali Hassan, and Haejoon Jung.
2021. "Opportunistic Large Array Propagation Models: A Comprehensive Survey" *Sensors* 21, no. 12: 4206.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s21124206