Linear and Nonlinear Deformation Effects in the Permanent GNSS Network of Cyprus
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Processing of Continuous GNSS Data
2.1. GNSS Permanent Stations in Cyprus
2.2. Observation Dataset and Software
2.3. Computation of Daily Solutions
2.4. MultiYear Solution and Quality Assessment
3. Horizontal and Vertical Secular Displacements in Cyprus
4. Analysis of Position Time Series at CYPOS Stations
4.1. Station Discontinuities
4.2. Estimation of Periodic Signals
4.3. Comparison with Geophysical Loading Models
5. Conclusions
 the area of Cyprus seems to be stable, without suffering any notable local crustal deformations, at least within the time range considered in the present study (11/2011–01/2017);
 the GNSS station that is located in Larnaca (LARN) shows some significant local effects, both in the horizontal and vertical components of its position time series. It is surmised that these effects are attributed to the underlying geology;
 the horizontal and vertical positions of all CYPOS GNSS stations have annual periodic variations of considerable magnitude (several mm)—the semiannual periodic displacements however were found to be negligible;
 some of the CYPOS GNSS stations appear to have periodic variations in their spatial positions at higher frequencies (120 to 60 days)—the related results have not been presented herein (due to space limitations) and they need to be investigated in detail in the future.
Author Contributions
Acknowledgments
Conflicts of Interest
References
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Station ID  Location  Receiver Model  Antenna Model  Supported GNSS 

EVRY  Evrychou  Leica GRX1200+ GNSS  Leica AR25  GPS + GLONASS 
LARN  Larnaca  Leica GMX902 GG  Leica AT 504 GG  GPS + GLONASS 
LEFK  Nicosia  Leica GMX902 GG  Leica AT 504 GG  GPS + GLONASS 
LEME  Limassol  Leica GMX902 GG  Leica AT 504 GG  GPS + GLONASS 
PAFO  Paphos  Leica GMX902 GG  Leica AT 504 GG  GPS + GLONASS 
PARA  Paralimni  Leica GMX902 GG  Leica AT 504 GG  GPS + GLONASS 
POLI  Polis  Leica GRX1200+ GNSS  Leica AR25  GPS + GLONASS 
Parameter  Setting 

Basic Observable  GNSS carrier phase. Codeonly for receiver clock sync and ambiguity resolution. MelbourneWübbena wide lane combination. 
Elevation CutOff Angle  10°, elevationdependent weighting (cosz). 
Data Sampling  30 s and 180 s in final solution. 
Modeled Observable  Ionospherefree linear combination of doubledifferenced carrier phase. 
Ground/Satellite APC calibration  Absolute Antenna Phase Center (APC) corrections (igs08.atx). 
Tidal Displacements  IERS 2010 conventions (solid Earth tides) FES2004 conventions (ocean loading corrections) No atmospheric loading corrections 
Orbits and Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs)  IGS Final GPS and GLONASS orbits and ERPs 
Ionosphere  Firstorder ionospheric delays eliminated by forming ionospherefree L1/L2 linear combination. Higherorder ionospheric corrections are applied. Regional ionospheric maps were used to increase the number of resolved ambiguities in QuasiIonosphere Free (QIF), L5/L3 and L1/L2 ambiguity resolution. 
Ambiguity Resolution  Ambiguities are resolved in a baselinebybaseline mode:

Troposphere  Dry GMF (prior model), estimation of hourly zenith delay corrections for each station using Wet GMF. Horizontal gradient parameter estimated each day per station (ChenHerring) 
Reference Frame  IGb08, nonet translation on reference station coordinates and velocities (IGb08.snx) 
Station ID  $\mathbf{X}\text{}\left({\mathit{t}}_{0}\right)$  $\mathbf{Y}\text{}\left({\mathit{t}}_{0}\right)$  $\mathbf{Z}\text{}\left({\mathit{t}}_{0}\right)$ 

EVRY  4389846.035  2839909.319  3641645.008 
LARN  4358623.310  2899369.048  3631599.949 
LEFK ^{1}  4360035.737  2870860.968  3652605.816 
4360035.736  2870860.987  3652605.816  
LEME  4403058.471  2862122.638  3607630.266 
NICO  4359415.715  2874117.069  3650777.829 
PAFO ^{1}  4427028.128  2812497.092  3617359.846 
4427028.124  2812497.091  3617359.841  
PARA  4335378.631  2922300.281  3641064.127 
POLI  4413130.062  2803627.159  3640911.041 
Station ID  ${\mathit{V}}_{\mathit{n}\mathit{o}\mathit{r}\mathit{t}\mathit{h}}$  ${\mathit{V}}_{\mathit{e}\mathit{a}\mathit{s}\mathit{t}}$  ${\mathit{V}}_{\mathit{u}\mathit{p}}$ 

EVRY  14.7  19.5  0.2 
LARN  13.6  20.2  −4.9 
LEFK ^{1}  16.3  19.3  0.1 
16.4  19.3  0.2  
LEME  15.6  20.3  0.3 
NICO  15.7  18.9  −0.3 
PAFO ^{1}  16.1  19.6  1.7 
15.9  19.7  1.6  
PARA  17.2  18.9  0.6 
POLI  14.2  19.1  −0.4 
Φ [deg]  Λ [deg]  ω [deg/Myear] 

49.83 ± 33.98  13.19 ± 15.30  0.629 ± 0.036 
Φ [deg]  Λ [deg]  ω [deg/Myear]  

Anatolia  40.0 ± 0.2  28.3 ± 0.4  2.021 ± 0.137 
Arabian  49.5 ± 0.8  4.8 ± 3.3  0.596 ± 0.029 
African  49.3 ± 0.4  280.5 ± 1.0  0.273 ± 0.002 
Eurasia  54.5 ± 0.4  262.9 ± 0.5  0.258 ± 0.001 
Anatolia  Arabian  African  Eurasia  

North component  
Mean  0.7  −5.1  −2.9  2.7 
RMS  1.6  5.2  3.1  3.0 
East component  
Mean  −0.3  0.0  −3.7  −5.8 
RMS  0.9  0.7  3.8  5.8 
Station ID  Amplitude [mm]  Phase [deg]  

North  East  Up  North  East  Up  
EVRY  3.2  3.0  3.2  114.5  80.9  74.0 
LARN  2.3  2.1  3.1  253.0  62.2  71.9 
LEFK  2.7  1.3  2.4  259.5  344.9  80.6 
LEME  2.1  0.6  4.1  45.2  190.0  244.8 
PAFO  2.3  1.2  2.2  211.6  49.0  109.0 
PARA  1.7  1.3  2.3  233.0  59.9  78.8 
POLI  2.0  1.4  2.9  212.7  22.2  79.4 
Station ID  GNSSBased  Total Loading  

North  East  Up  North  East  Up  
EVRY  2.9  2.7  4.9  0.7  0.5  3.3 
LARN  2.0  1.7  4.3  0.7  0.5  3.3 
LEFK  2.4  1.5  4.1  0.7  0.5  3.3 
PAFO  2.0  1.7  3.9  0.8  0.5  3.2 
PARA  1.5  1.4  4.0  0.7  0.5  3.3 
POLI  1.8  1.9  4.7  0.7  0.5  3.2 
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Danezis, C.; Chatzinikos, M.; Kotsakis, C. Linear and Nonlinear Deformation Effects in the Permanent GNSS Network of Cyprus. Sensors 2020, 20, 1768. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061768
Danezis C, Chatzinikos M, Kotsakis C. Linear and Nonlinear Deformation Effects in the Permanent GNSS Network of Cyprus. Sensors. 2020; 20(6):1768. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061768
Chicago/Turabian StyleDanezis, Chris, Miltiadis Chatzinikos, and Christopher Kotsakis. 2020. "Linear and Nonlinear Deformation Effects in the Permanent GNSS Network of Cyprus" Sensors 20, no. 6: 1768. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061768