Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) plays an important role in modern life, including localisation and navigation if a Global Positioning System (GPS) is not available. Most previous PDR methods adopted foot-mounted sensors. However, humans have evolved to keep the head steady in space when the body is moving in order to stabilise the visual field. This indicates that sensors that are placed on the head might provide a more suitable alternative for real-world tracking. Emerging wearable technologies that are connected to the head also makes this a growing field of interest. Head-mounted equipment, such as glasses, are already ubiquitous in everyday life. Whilst other wearable gear, such as helmets, masks, or mouthguards, are becoming increasingly more common. Thus, an accurate PDR method that is specifically designed for head-mounted sensors is needed. It could have various applications in sports, emergency rescue, smart home, etc. In this paper, a new PDR method is introduced for head mounted sensors and compared to two established methods. The data were collected by sensors that were placed on glasses and embedded into a mouthguard. The results show that the newly proposed method outperforms the other two techniques in terms of accuracy, with the new method producing an average end-to-end error of 0.88 m and total distance error of 2.10%.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited