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Article

CT-RPL: Cluster Tree Based Routing Protocol to Maximize the Lifetime of Internet of Things

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Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sona College of Technology, Salem 636005, India
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Department of Information Technology, VNR Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad 500090, India
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Department of Electrical and Communication Engineering, The PNG University of Technology, Lae 411, Papua New Guinea
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Graduate School, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
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Faculty of Information Technology, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
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Robotics and Internet of Things Lab, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh 12435, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(20), 5858; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20205858
Received: 9 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Energy conservation is one of the most critical challenges in the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT devices are incredibly resource-constrained and possess miniature power sources, small memory, and limited processing ability. Clustering is a popular method to avoid duplicate data transfer from the participant node to the destination. The selection of the cluster head (CH) plays a crucial role in gathering and aggregating the data from the cluster members and forwarding the data to the sink node. The inefficient CH selection causes packet failures during the data transfer and early battery depletion nearer to the sink. This paper proposes a cluster tree-based routing protocol (CT-RPL) to increase the life span of the network and avoid the data traffic among the network nodes. The CT-RPL involves three processes, namely cluster formation, cluster head selection, and route establishment. The cluster is formed based on the Euclidean distance. The CH selection is accomplished using a game theoretic approach. Finally, the route is established using the metrics residual energy ratio (RER), queue utilization (QU), and expected transmission count (ETX). The simulation is carried out by using a COOJA simulator. The efficiency of a CT-RPL is compared with the Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) and energy-efficient heterogeneous ring clustering routing (E2HRC-RPL), which reduces the traffic load and decreases the packet loss ratio. Thus, the CT-RPL enhances the lifetime of the network by 30–40% and the packet delivery ratio by 5–10%. View Full-Text
Keywords: clustering methods; energy consumption; energy efficiency; game theory; Internet of Things; routing protocol clustering methods; energy consumption; energy efficiency; game theory; Internet of Things; routing protocol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sankar, S.; Ramasubbareddy, S.; Luhach, A.K.; Nayyar, A.; Qureshi, B. CT-RPL: Cluster Tree Based Routing Protocol to Maximize the Lifetime of Internet of Things. Sensors 2020, 20, 5858. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20205858

AMA Style

Sankar S, Ramasubbareddy S, Luhach AK, Nayyar A, Qureshi B. CT-RPL: Cluster Tree Based Routing Protocol to Maximize the Lifetime of Internet of Things. Sensors. 2020; 20(20):5858. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20205858

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sankar, Sennan, Somula Ramasubbareddy, Ashish Kr. Luhach, Anand Nayyar, and Basit Qureshi. 2020. "CT-RPL: Cluster Tree Based Routing Protocol to Maximize the Lifetime of Internet of Things" Sensors 20, no. 20: 5858. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20205858

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