This paper presents an always-on Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor (CIS) using an analog convolutional neural network for image classification in mobile applications. To reduce the power consumption as well as the overall processing time, we propose analog convolution circuits for computing convolution, max-pooling, and correlated double sampling operations without operational transconductance amplifiers. In addition, we used the voltage-mode MAX circuit for max pooling in the analog domain. After the analog convolution processing, the image data were reduced by 99.58% and were converted to digital with a 4-bit single-slope analog-to-digital converter. After the conversion, images were classified by the fully connected processor, which is traditionally performed in the digital domain. The measurement results show that we achieved an 89.33% image classification accuracy. The prototype CIS was fabricated in a 0.11 μm 1-poly 4-metal CIS process with a standard 4T-active pixel sensor. The image resolution was 160 × 120, and the total power consumption of the proposed CIS was 1.12 mW with a 3.3 V supply voltage and a maximum frame rate of 120.
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