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Open AccessArticle

Photometric Sensing of Active Chlorine, Total Chlorine, and pH on a Microfluidic Chip for Online Swimming Pool Monitoring

1
Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
2
Institute for Nanoscale Science & Technology, College of Science & Engineering, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia
3
School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
4
Tekelek Australia Pty Ltd., 95A Bedford St, Gillman SA 5013, Australia
5
School of Engineering, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(11), 3099; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20113099
Received: 8 May 2020 / Revised: 27 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 30 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Sensors)
A microfluidic sensor was studied for the photometric detection of active chlorine, total chlorine, and pH in swimming pool samples. The sensor consisted of a four-layer borosilicate glass chip, containing a microchannel network and a 2.2 mm path length, 1.7 mL optical cell. The chip was optimised to measure the bleaching of methyl orange and spectral changes in phenol red for quantitative chlorine (active and total) and pH measurements that were suited to swimming pool monitoring. Reagent consumption (60 mL per measurement) was minimised to allow for maintenance-free operation over a nominal summer season (3 months) with minimal waste. The chip was tested using samples from 12 domestic, public, and commercial swimming pools (indoor and outdoor), with results that compare favourably with commercial products (test strips and the N,N’-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) method), precision pH electrodes, and iodometric titration. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorine; pH; microfluidic; photometric; online; swimming pool chlorine; pH; microfluidic; photometric; online; swimming pool
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elmas, S.; Pospisilova, A.; Sekulska, A.A.; Vasilev, V.; Nann, T.; Thornton, S.; Priest, C. Photometric Sensing of Active Chlorine, Total Chlorine, and pH on a Microfluidic Chip for Online Swimming Pool Monitoring. Sensors 2020, 20, 3099.

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