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Open AccessArticle

Analysis of the Relationship between Scintillation Parameters, Multipath and ROTI

Geospatial and Geohazards Research Group, University of Nottingham, Ningbo 315100, China
Nottingham Geospatial Institute, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, PKU, Beijing 100871, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2877;
Received: 8 March 2020 / Revised: 9 May 2020 / Accepted: 12 May 2020 / Published: 19 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) operation can be affected by several environmental factors, of which ionospheric scintillation is one of the most significant. Scintillation is usually characterized by two indices, namely the amplitude scintillation index (S4) and phase scintillation index (σφ). However, these two indices can only be generated by specialized GNSS receivers, which are not widely available all around the world. To popularize the study of scintillation, this article proposes to use more accessible parameters, namely multipath (MP) and rate of change of total electron content index (ROTI), to characterize scintillation. Using GPS data obtained on six days in total from three stations, namely PRU2 and SAO0P located in Sao Paulo, Brazil and SNA0P located in Antarctica, respectively, both the time series plots and 2D maps were generated to investigate the relationship of scintillation indices (S4 and σφ) with MP and ROTI. To prevent the effect of the real multipath error, a 30-degree satellite elevation mask is applied to all the data. As the scintillation indices S4 and σφ have a sampling interval of 1 min, MP and ROTI are calculated with the same sampling interval for a more direct comparison. The results show that the structural similarity (SSIM) and correlation coefficient (CC) between parameters was greater than 0.7 for 70% of outputs. In addition, the variogram and cross-variogram are applied to investigate the spatial structure of the MP, ROTI, S4 and σφ in order to support the results of SSIM and CC. With outputs in three forms, promising spatial and temporal relationships between parameters was observed.
Keywords: GNSS; scintillation parameters; multipath; ROTI; relationship GNSS; scintillation parameters; multipath; ROTI; relationship
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, C.; Hancock, C.M.; Hamm, N.A.S.; Veettil, S.V.; You, C. Analysis of the Relationship between Scintillation Parameters, Multipath and ROTI. Sensors 2020, 20, 2877.

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