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Article

Possibilities for Groundwater Flow Sensing with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

1
Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
2
Optical Sciences, University of Twente, Hallenweg 23, 7522 NH Enschede, The Netherlands
3
Arcadis Nederland B.V., Beaulieustraat 22, 6814 DV Arnhem, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Wetsus, European centre of excellence for sustainable water technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071730
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
An understanding of groundwater flow near drinking water extraction wells is crucial when it comes to avoiding well clogging and pollution. A promising new approach to groundwater flow monitoring is the deployment of a network of optical fibers with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In preparation for a field experiment, a laboratory scale aquifer was constructed to investigate the feasibility of FBG sensors for this application. Multiparameter FBG sensors were able to detect changes in temperature, pressure, and fiber shape with sensitivities influenced by the packaging. The first results showed that, in a simulated environment with a flow velocity of 2.9 m/d, FBG strain effects were more pronounced than initially expected. FBG sensors of a pressure-induced strain implemented in a spatial array could form a multiplexed sensor for the groundwater flow direction and magnitude. Within the scope of this research, key technical specifications of FBG interrogators for groundwater flow sensing were also identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: fiber Bragg grating; aquifer simulator; thermal tracer; FBG interrogators; multiplexed temperature sensing fiber Bragg grating; aquifer simulator; thermal tracer; FBG interrogators; multiplexed temperature sensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Drusová, S.; Bakx, W.; Wexler, A.D.; Offerhaus, H.L. Possibilities for Groundwater Flow Sensing with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors. Sensors 2019, 19, 1730. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071730

AMA Style

Drusová S, Bakx W, Wexler AD, Offerhaus HL. Possibilities for Groundwater Flow Sensing with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors. Sensors. 2019; 19(7):1730. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071730

Chicago/Turabian Style

Drusová, Sandra, Wiecher Bakx, Adam D. Wexler, and Herman L. Offerhaus 2019. "Possibilities for Groundwater Flow Sensing with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors" Sensors 19, no. 7: 1730. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071730

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