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Review

The Progress of Glucose Monitoring—A Review of Invasive to Minimally and Non-Invasive Techniques, Devices and Sensors

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane 4072, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(4), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040800
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Medical Sensing)
Current glucose monitoring methods for the ever-increasing number of diabetic people around the world are invasive, painful, time-consuming, and a constant burden for the household budget. The non-invasive glucose monitoring technology overcomes these limitations, for which this topic is significantly being researched and represents an exciting and highly sought after market for many companies. This review aims to offer an up-to-date report on the leading technologies for non-invasive (NI) and minimally-invasive (MI) glucose monitoring sensors, devices currently available in the market, regulatory framework for accuracy assessment, new approaches currently under study by representative groups and developers, and algorithm types for signal enhancement and value prediction. The review also discusses the future trend of glucose detection by analyzing the usage of the different bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. The review concludes that the adoption and use of new technologies for glucose detection is unavoidable and closer to become a reality. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose; non-invasive; minimally-invasive; spectroscopy; continuous monitoring; MARD; FDA; ISO 15197; plasmon resonance; fluorescence; ultrasound; metabolic heat conformation glucose; non-invasive; minimally-invasive; spectroscopy; continuous monitoring; MARD; FDA; ISO 15197; plasmon resonance; fluorescence; ultrasound; metabolic heat conformation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Villena Gonzales, W.; Mobashsher, A.T.; Abbosh, A. The Progress of Glucose Monitoring—A Review of Invasive to Minimally and Non-Invasive Techniques, Devices and Sensors. Sensors 2019, 19, 800. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040800

AMA Style

Villena Gonzales W, Mobashsher AT, Abbosh A. The Progress of Glucose Monitoring—A Review of Invasive to Minimally and Non-Invasive Techniques, Devices and Sensors. Sensors. 2019; 19(4):800. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040800

Chicago/Turabian Style

Villena Gonzales, Wilbert, Ahmed T. Mobashsher, and Amin Abbosh. 2019. "The Progress of Glucose Monitoring—A Review of Invasive to Minimally and Non-Invasive Techniques, Devices and Sensors" Sensors 19, no. 4: 800. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040800

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