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Sensors 2019, 19(3), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030616

Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of Error Estimation for Two-Way Ranging Methods

Cognitronics and Sensor Systems Group (CITEC), Bielefeld University, 33619 Bielefeld, Germany
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in “C. Lian Sang, M. Adams, T. Hörmann, M. Hesse, M. Porrman, U. Rückert. An Analytical Study of Time of Flight Error Estimation in Two-Way Ranging Methods. In Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), Nantes, France, 24–27 September 2018, doi:10.4119/unibi/2919795”.
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Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Fusion and Novel Technologies in Positioning and Navigation)
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Abstract

The Two-Way Ranging (TWR) method is commonly used for measuring the distance between two wireless transceiver nodes, especially when clock synchronization between the two nodes is not available. For modeling the time-of-flight (TOF) error between two wireless transceiver nodes in TWR, the existing error model, described in the IEEE 802.15.4-2011 standard, is solely based on clock drift. However, it is inadequate for in-depth comparative analysis between different TWR methods. In this paper, we propose a novel TOF Error Estimation Model (TEEM) for TWR methods. Using the proposed model, we evaluate the comparative analysis between different TWR methods. The analytical results were validated with both numerical simulation and experimental results. Moreover, we demonstrate the pitfalls of the symmetric double-sided TWR (SDS-TWR) method, which is the most highlighted TWR method in the literature because of its highly accurate performance on clock-drift error reduction when reply times are symmetric. We argue that alternative double-sided TWR (AltDS-TWR) outperforms SDS-TWR. The argument was verified with both numerical simulation and experimental evaluation results. View Full-Text
Keywords: TEEM; TWR; AltDS-TWR; SDS-TWR; distance measurement; error analysis; delay effects; TOF error model TEEM; TWR; AltDS-TWR; SDS-TWR; distance measurement; error analysis; delay effects; TOF error model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lian Sang, C.; Adams, M.; Hörmann, T.; Hesse, M.; Porrmann, M.; Rückert, U. Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of Error Estimation for Two-Way Ranging Methods. Sensors 2019, 19, 616.

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