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Open AccessArticle

Wildfire Detection Using Sound Spectrum Analysis Based on the Internet of Things

by Shuo Zhang, Demin Gao *,†, Haifeng Lin and Quan Sun
College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5093; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235093
Received: 29 September 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 19 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
Wildfire is a sudden and hazardous natural disaster. Currently, many schemes based on optical spectrum analysis have been proposed to detect wildfire, but obstacles in forest areas can decrease the efficiency of spectral monitoring, resulting in a wildfire detection system not being able to monitor the occurrence of wildfire promptly. In this paper, we propose a novel wildfire detection system using sound spectrum analysis based on the Internet of Things (IoT), which utilizes a wireless acoustic detection system to probe wildfire and distinguish the difference in the sound between the crown and the surface fire. We also designed a new power supply unit: tree-energy device, which utilizes the biological energy of the living trees to generate electricity. We implemented sound spectrum analysis on the data collected by sound sensors and then combined our classification algorithms. The results describe that the sound frequency of the crown fire is about 0–400 Hz, while the sound frequency of the surface fire ranges from 0 to 15,000 Hz. However, the accuracy of the classification method is affected by some factors, such as the distribution of sensors, the loss of energy in sound transmission, and the delay of data transmission. In the simulation experiments, the recognition rate of the method can reach about 70%. View Full-Text
Keywords: wildfire; Internet of Things; sound spectrum analysis; tree-energy device; crown fire; surface fire wildfire; Internet of Things; sound spectrum analysis; tree-energy device; crown fire; surface fire
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Zhang, S.; Gao, D.; Lin, H.; Sun, Q. Wildfire Detection Using Sound Spectrum Analysis Based on the Internet of Things. Sensors 2019, 19, 5093.

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