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Article

AEF: Adaptive En-Route Filtering to Extend Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks

1
Department of Computing, SEECS, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
3
Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea
4
Department of Computer and Information Security, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 4036; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19184036
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 13 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 19 September 2019
Static sink-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) suffer from an energy-hole problem. This incurs as the rate of energy consumption on sensor nodes around sinks and on critical paths is considerably faster. State-of-the-art en-routing filtering schemes save energy by countering false report injection attacks. In addition to their unique limitations, these schemes generally do not examine energy awareness in underlying routing. Mostly, these security methods are based on a fixed filtering capacity, unable to respond to changes in attack intensity. Therefore, these limitations cause network partition(s), exhibiting adverse effects on network lifetime. Extending network lifetime while preserving energy and security thus becomes an interesting challenge. In this article, we address the aforesaid shortcomings with the proposed adaptive en-route filtering (AEF) scheme. In energy-aware routing, the fitness function, which is used to select forwarding nodes, considers residual energy and other factors as opposed to distance only. In pre-deterministic key distribution, keys are distributed based on the consideration of having paths with a different number of verification nodes. This, consequently, permits us to have multiple paths with different security levels that can be exploited to counter different attack intensities. Taken together, the integration of the special fitness function with the new key distribution approach enables the AEF to adapt the underlying dynamic network conditions. The simulation experiments under different settings show significant improvements in network lifetime. View Full-Text
Keywords: filtering capacity; adaptive filtering; energy-aware routing; network lifetime; energy efficiency; wireless sensor networks filtering capacity; adaptive filtering; energy-aware routing; network lifetime; energy efficiency; wireless sensor networks
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shahzad, M.K.; Islam, S.M.R.; Kwak, K.-S.; Nkenyereye, L. AEF: Adaptive En-Route Filtering to Extend Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2019, 19, 4036. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19184036

AMA Style

Shahzad MK, Islam SMR, Kwak K-S, Nkenyereye L. AEF: Adaptive En-Route Filtering to Extend Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2019; 19(18):4036. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19184036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shahzad, Muhammad K.; Islam, S. M.R.; Kwak, Kyung-Sup; Nkenyereye, Lewis. 2019. "AEF: Adaptive En-Route Filtering to Extend Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks" Sensors 19, no. 18: 4036. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19184036

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