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Vein Pattern Locating Technology for Cannulation: A Review of the Low-Cost Vein Finder Prototypes Utilizing near Infrared (NIR) Light to Improve Peripheral Subcutaneous Vein Selection for Phlebotomy

1
Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University (NSYSU), Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
2
Institute of Medical Science and Technology, NSYSU, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
3
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, NSYSU, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
4
College of Medical Technology, Trinity University of Asia (TUA), Quezon City 1102, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first Author.
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3573; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163573
Received: 21 July 2019 / Revised: 21 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Biomedical Sensors)
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PDF [1391 KB, uploaded 16 August 2019]
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Abstract

One of the most common means for diagnosis is through medical laboratory testing, which primarily uses venous blood as a sample. This requires an invasive method by cannulation that needs proper vein selection. The use of a vein finder would help the phlebotomist to easily locate the vein, preventing possible pre-analytical error in the specimen collection and even more discomfort and pain to the patient. This paper is a review of the scientific publications on the different developed low-cost vein finder prototypes utilizing camera assisted near infrared (NIR) light technology. Methods: Electronic databases were searched online, these included PubMed (PMC), MEDLINE, Science Direct, ResearchGate, and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Xplore digital library. Specifically, publications with the terms vein finder prototype, NIR technology, vein detection, and infrared imaging were screened. In addition, reference lists were used to further review related publications. Results: Cannulation challenges medical practitioners because of the different factors that can be reduced by the utilization of a vein finder. A limited number of publications regarding the assessment of personnel performing cannulation were observed. Moreover, variations in methodology, number of patients, type of patients according to their demographics and materials used in the assessment of the developed prototypes were noted. Some studies were limited with regard to the actual human testing of the prototype. Conclusions: The development of a low-cost effective near infrared (NIR) vein finder remains in the phase of improvement. Since, it is being challenged by different human factors, increasing the number of parameters and participants/human for actual testing of the prototypes must also be taken into consideration for possible commercialization. Finally, it was noted that publications regarding the assessment of the performance of phlebotomists using vein finders were limited. View Full-Text
Keywords: (IR) infrared; (LED) light emitting diode; vein finder; cannulation; venipuncture; phlebotomy; hemoglobin (IR) infrared; (LED) light emitting diode; vein finder; cannulation; venipuncture; phlebotomy; hemoglobin
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Pan, C.-T.; Francisco, M.D.; Yen, C.-K.; Wang, S.-Y.; Shiue, Y.-L. Vein Pattern Locating Technology for Cannulation: A Review of the Low-Cost Vein Finder Prototypes Utilizing near Infrared (NIR) Light to Improve Peripheral Subcutaneous Vein Selection for Phlebotomy. Sensors 2019, 19, 3573.

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