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Open AccessArticle

Unobtrusive Vital Sign Monitoring in Automotive Environments—A Review

1
Chair for Medical Information Technology, Helmholtz-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, D-52076 Aachen, Germany
2
Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), Boston, MA 02139, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093080
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noncontact and Unobtrusive Biomedical Sensors 2018)
This review provides an overview of unobtrusive monitoring techniques that could be used to monitor some of the human vital signs (i.e., heart activity, breathing activity, temperature and potentially oxygen saturation) in a car seat. It will be shown that many techniques actually measure mechanical displacement, either on the body surface and/or inside the body. However, there are also techniques like capacitive electrocardiogram or bioimpedance that reflect electrical activity or passive electrical properties or thermal properties (infrared thermography). In addition, photopleythysmographic methods depend on optical properties (like scattering and absorption) of biological tissues and—mainly—blood. As all unobtrusive sensing modalities are always fragile and at risk of being contaminated by disturbances (like motion, rapidly changing environmental conditions, triboelectricity), the scope of the paper includes a survey on redundant sensor arrangements. Finally, this review also provides an overview of automotive demonstrators for vital sign monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: unobtrusive monitoring techniques; car seat, driver state monitoring; vehicle; electrocardiogram; steering wheel; capacitive electrocardiogram; magnetic impedance; eddy currents; ballistocardiography; photoplethysmography; PPG imaging; infrared thermography; RADAR unobtrusive monitoring techniques; car seat, driver state monitoring; vehicle; electrocardiogram; steering wheel; capacitive electrocardiogram; magnetic impedance; eddy currents; ballistocardiography; photoplethysmography; PPG imaging; infrared thermography; RADAR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leonhardt, S.; Leicht, L.; Teichmann, D. Unobtrusive Vital Sign Monitoring in Automotive Environments—A Review. Sensors 2018, 18, 3080. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093080

AMA Style

Leonhardt S, Leicht L, Teichmann D. Unobtrusive Vital Sign Monitoring in Automotive Environments—A Review. Sensors. 2018; 18(9):3080. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093080

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leonhardt, Steffen; Leicht, Lennart; Teichmann, Daniel. 2018. "Unobtrusive Vital Sign Monitoring in Automotive Environments—A Review" Sensors 18, no. 9: 3080. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093080

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