Rapid diagnosis and screening of diseases have become increasingly important in predictive and preventive medicine as they improve patient treatment strategies and reduce cost as well as burden on our healthcare system. In this regard, wearable devices are emerging as effective and reliable point-of-care diagnostics that can allow users to monitor their health at home. These wrist-worn, head-mounted, smart-textile, or smart-patches devices can offer valuable information on the conditions of patients as a non-invasive form of monitoring. However, they are significantly limited in monitoring physiological signals and biomechanics, and, mostly, rely on the physical attributes. Recently, developed wearable devices utilize body fluids, such as sweat, saliva, or skin interstitial fluid, and electrochemical interactions to allow continuous physiological condition and disease monitoring for users. Among them, tear fluid has been widely utilized in the investigation of ocular diseases, diabetes, and even cancers, because of its easy accessibility, lower complexity, and minimal invasiveness. By determining the concentration change of analytes within the tear fluid, it would be possible to identify disease progression and allow patient-oriented therapies. Considering the emerging trend of tear-based biosensing technology, this review article aims to focus on an overview of the tear fluid as a detection medium for certain diseases, such as ocular disorders, diabetes, and cancer. In addition, the rise and application of minimally invasive detection and monitoring via integrated contact lens biosensors will also be addressed, in regards to their practicality and current developmental progress.
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