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Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082648

Sensors for Fetal Hypoxia and Metabolic Acidosis: A Review

1
Institute of Sensors, Signals and Systems, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton EH14 4AS, Scotland, UK
2
MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, Scotland, UK
3
Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, The Chancellor’s Building, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, Scotland, UK
4
Institute of Mechanical, Processing and Energy Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton EH14 4AS, Scotland, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [545 KB, uploaded 13 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

This article reviews existing clinical practices and sensor research undertaken to monitor fetal well-being during labour. Current clinical practices that include fetal heart rate monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling are shown to be either inadequate or time-consuming. Monitoring of lactate in blood is identified as a potential alternative for intrapartum fetal monitoring due to its ability to distinguish between different types of acidosis. A literature review from a medical and technical perspective is presented to identify the current advancements in the field of lactate sensors for this application. It is concluded that a less invasive and a more continuous monitoring device is required to fulfill the clinical needs of intrapartum fetal monitoring. Potential specifications for such a system are also presented in this paper. View Full-Text
Keywords: lactate; electrochemical sensing; optical sensing; lactate oxidase; lactate hydrogenase; fetal monitoring; hypoxia; obstetrics; fetal blood sampling lactate; electrochemical sensing; optical sensing; lactate oxidase; lactate hydrogenase; fetal monitoring; hypoxia; obstetrics; fetal blood sampling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Cummins, G.; Kremer, J.; Bernassau, A.; Brown, A.; Bridle, H.L.; Schulze, H.; Bachmann, T.T.; Crichton, M.; Denison, F.C.; Desmulliez, M.P.Y. Sensors for Fetal Hypoxia and Metabolic Acidosis: A Review. Sensors 2018, 18, 2648.

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