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Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2578;

An Outlook on Physical and Virtual Sensors for a Socially Interactive Internet

Centre for Informatics and Systems of the University of Coimbra (CISUC), University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra, Portugal
Escola Superior Politécnica do Uíge, Universidade Kimpa Vita, Kondo Benze, Uíge, Angola
Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, ISCAC, 3040-316 Coimbra, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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The Internet keeps changing at a rapid pace, driven mainly by the emerging concepts and applications that make it aware of the physical world and responsive to user context. The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is quickly giving way to more advanced and highly interactive environments that go well beyond the mere sensing of the physical world. Today, in addition to traditional electronic devices, IoT sensing/actuating includes both software and human-based entities. This paper provides an outlook on the future of sensing/actuating approaches on the Internet at large, which we see increasingly related to all kinds of socially interactive technologies. With these objectives in mind, we propose a taxonomy to deal with the heterogeneity of sensing/actuating approaches in IoT. We also analyse the state-of-the-art of Social Sensing. Finally, we identify open issues and associated research opportunities, the main ones being the integration of all sensing approaches, the combination of social sciences, engineering, and computing as enablers of context-aware, cognitive applications and, last but not least, the unified management of large sets of very heterogeneous sensors/actuators. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet of Things; taxonomy; heterogeneity; social IoT Internet of Things; taxonomy; heterogeneity; social IoT

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Armando, N.; Rodrigues, A.; Pereira, V.; Sá Silva, J.; Boavida, F. An Outlook on Physical and Virtual Sensors for a Socially Interactive Internet. Sensors 2018, 18, 2578.

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