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Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082579

The Impact of Tropospheric Anomalies on Sea-Based JPALS Integrity

School of Electronic Information Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
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Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Abstract

The Joint Precision Approach Landing System (JPALS) addresses tropospheric errors through double-difference and tropospheric model correction. Large residuals occur with two types of tropospheric anomalies: the vertical duct and horizontal non-nominal troposphere. Through analyzing 8 years of meteorological data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), we find that the two types of anomalies can occur simultaneously. In addition, the existing vertical protection level (VPL) calculation method under tropospheric anomalies is based on the least squares method, which is not applicable to Sea-Based JPALS using the Kalman filter. Therefore, we start by calculating the zenith duct error by numerical integration. The maximum error observed is 45.64 mm, and the error seasonal characteristic is analyzed. For the non-nominal troposphere, the worst meteorological conditions in the Chinese surrounding sea areas are used to calculate the non-nominal errors, which are fitted to a satellite-elevation-dependent model. Then, a VPL calculation method based on the Kalman filter under tropospheric anomalies is proposed. Finally, a multiple approach simulation is conducted. The results show that the average VPL increments introduced by the duct and non-nominal troposphere anomalies are 0.082 m and 0.211 m, respectively, with growth percentages of 12.903% and 30.857%, respectively. The increment under simultaneous anomalies is 0.272 m with a growth of 40.427%. Furthermore, the average availability under normal conditions is 100%. Considering the duct and the non-nominal troposphere anomalies, the availability loss is 0.017% and 3.674%, respectively. Under simultaneous anomalies, this loss is 4.743%. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sea-Based JPALS; troposphere delay; tropospheric duct anomaly; non-nominal troposphere; VPL Sea-Based JPALS; troposphere delay; tropospheric duct anomaly; non-nominal troposphere; VPL
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhang, Y.; Wang, Z. The Impact of Tropospheric Anomalies on Sea-Based JPALS Integrity. Sensors 2018, 18, 2579.

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