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Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1619;

Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Research Challenges, Routing Strategies and Future Directions

Department of Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar KPK 25000, Pakistan
Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Department of Computer System and Technology, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kualalumpur 50603, Malaysia
School of Computing and IT, Taylor’s University, Kualalumpur 50603, Malaysia
Collage of Computer Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
Department of Computer Science, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200, Pakistan
Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, Northern Border University, Rafha 11351, Saudi Arabia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensing, Communication, Networking and Systems)
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Recent research in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has gained the attention of researchers in academia and industry for a number of applications. They include disaster and earthquake prediction, water quality and environment monitoring, leakage and mine detection, military surveillance and underwater navigation. However, the aquatic medium is associated with a number of limitations and challenges: long multipath delay, high interference and noise, harsh environment, low bandwidth and limited battery life of the sensor nodes. These challenges demand research techniques and strategies to be overcome in an efficient and effective fashion. The design of routing protocols for UWSNs is one of the promising solutions to cope with these challenges. This paper presents a survey of the routing protocols for UWSNs. For the ease of description, the addressed routing protocols are classified into two groups: localization-based and localization-free protocols. These groups are further subdivided according to the problems they address or the major parameters they consider during routing. Unlike the existing surveys, this survey considers only the latest and state-of-the-art routing protocols. In addition, every protocol is described in terms of its routing strategy and the problem it addresses and solves. The merit(s) of each protocol is (are) highlighted along with the cost. A description of the protocols in this fashion has a number of advantages for researchers, as compared to the existing surveys. Firstly, the description of the routing strategy of each protocol makes its routing operation easily understandable. Secondly, the demerit(s) of a protocol provides (provide) insight into overcoming its flaw(s) in future investigation. This, in turn, leads to the foundation of new protocols that are more intelligent, robust and efficient with respect to the desired parameters. Thirdly, a protocol can be selected for the appropriate application based on its described merit(s). Finally, open challenges and research directions are presented for future investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: survey; routing; underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs); protocol; localization survey; routing; underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs); protocol; localization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Khan, A.; Ali, I.; Ghani, A.; Khan, N.; Alsaqer, M.; Rahman, A.U.; Mahmood, H. Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Research Challenges, Routing Strategies and Future Directions. Sensors 2018, 18, 1619.

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