Next Article in Journal
Improvement of Detection Sensitivity of Microbubbles as Sensors to Detect Ambient Pressure
Previous Article in Journal
Correntropy Based Divided Difference Filtering for the Positioning of Ships
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 4081;

A Handheld Real-Time Photoacoustic Imaging System for Animal Neurological Disease Models: From Simulation to Realization

Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456, Singapore
Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583, Singapore
Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
PDF [2983 KB, uploaded 22 November 2018]


This article provides a guide to design and build a handheld, real-time photoacoustic (PA) imaging system from simulation to realization for animal neurological disease models. A pulsed laser and array-based ultrasound (US) platform were utilized to develop the system for evaluating vascular functions in rats with focal ischemia or subcutaneous tumors. To optimize the laser light delivery, finite element (FE)-based simulation models were developed to provide information regarding light propagation and PA wave generation in soft tissues. Besides, simulations were also conducted to evaluate the ideal imaging resolution of the US system. As a result, a PA C-scan image of a designed phantom in 1% Lipofundin was reconstructed with depth information. Performance of the handheld PA system was tested in an animal ischemia model, which revealed that cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes at the cortical surface could be monitored immediately after ischemia induction. Another experiment on subcutaneous tumors showed the anomalous distribution of the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) and oxygen saturation (SO2), while 3D and maximum intensity projection (MIP) PA images of the subcutaneous tumors are also presented in this article. Overall, this system shows promise for monitoring disease progression in vascular functional impairments. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurological disease; photoacoustic imaging; stroke; tumor; vascular function neurological disease; photoacoustic imaging; stroke; tumor; vascular function

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.-H.; Xu, Y.; Liao, L.-D.; Chan, K.C.; Thakor, N.V. A Handheld Real-Time Photoacoustic Imaging System for Animal Neurological Disease Models: From Simulation to Realization. Sensors 2018, 18, 4081.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top