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Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3864; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113864

A Situation-Aware Indoor Localization (SAIL) System Using a LF and RF Hybrid Approach

1
School of Electronics Engineering, College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehakro, Bukgu, Daegu 702-701, Korea
2
Center of Self-Organizing Software-Platform, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehakro, Bukgu, Daegu 702-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Wireless Sensors in Localization and Tracking)
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Abstract

Recently, studies focusing on identifying user’s current location for use in a wide variety of differentiated location-based and localization services have steadily increased. In particular, location awareness using wireless communication is gaining attention in indoor environments composed of many obstacles, where GPS signals cannot reach. Previously, studies have focused mostly on location precision, which resulted in using many beacon nodes, not considering the initial installation and maintenance costs, communication robustness, or power consumption. This makes it difficult to apply existing methods to various fields, especially in mobile nodes (i.e., wearable devices, mobile tags, etc.) with limited battery capacity. In this paper, we propose a hybrid situation-aware indoor localization (SAIL) system for real-time indoor localization using a combination of low frequency (LF) and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) 4.0. This approach allows us to work with limited battery capacity mobile devices, and identify tagged mobile nodes and their current location in relevance to the anchor node. In our experiment, we attached one anchor node at the entrance to indoor areas such as office or factory settings. Using our hybrid SAIL system, we were able to detect the passing of a mobile node through the entrance and recognize whether the node is entering or exiting the room by calculating the direction of movement as well as the distance from the entrance. This allowed us to distinguish the precise position in an indoor environment with the margin of error being 0.5 m. The signal attenuation due to obstacles is overcome by using LF communication in the 125-kHz band. This approach enables us to reduce the number of initially installed anchor nodes as well as the power consumption of the mobile node. We propose an indoor position recognition system, namely, the hybrid SAIL system, that can be applied to mobile nodes with limited battery capacity by reducing the system complexity and power consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: WSN; indoor-localization; situation-aware; low-frequency; BLE; RSSI; trajectory tracking; mobile asset management; IoT WSN; indoor-localization; situation-aware; low-frequency; BLE; RSSI; trajectory tracking; mobile asset management; IoT
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Park, J.K.; Kim, J.; Kang, S.J. A Situation-Aware Indoor Localization (SAIL) System Using a LF and RF Hybrid Approach. Sensors 2018, 18, 3864.

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