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Open AccessArticle

A Portable Impedance Immunosensing System for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium

School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 1973;
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Toxic and Pathogen Detection)
Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens and poses a significant threat to human health. The objective of this study was to develop a portable impedance immunosensing system for rapid and sensitive detection of S. Typhimurium in poultry. The developed portable impedance immunosensing system consisted of a gold interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM), a signal acquisitive interface and a laptop computer with LabVIEW software. The IDAM was first functionalized with 16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid, and streptavidin was immobilized onto the electrode surface through covalent bonding. Then, biotin-labelled S. Typhimurium-antibody was immobilized onto the IDAM surface. Samples were dropped on the surface of the IDAM and the S. Typhimurium cells in the samples were captured by the antibody on the IDAM. This resulted in impedance changes that were measured and displayed with the LabVIEW software. An equivalent circuit of the immunosensor demonstrated that the largest change in impedance was due to the electron-transfer resistance. The equivalent circuit showed an increase of 35% for the electron-transfer resistance value compared to the negative control. The calibration result indicated that the portable impedance immunosensing system could be used to measure the standard impedance elements, and it had a maximum error of measurement of approximately 13%. For pure culture detection, the system had a linear relationship between the impedance change and the logarithmic value of S. Typhimurium cells ranging from 76 to 7.6 × 106 CFU (colony-forming unit) (50 μL)−1. The immunosensor also had a correlation coefficient of 0.98, and a high specificity for detection of S. Typhimurium cells with a limit of detection (LOD) of 102 CFU (50 μL)−1. The detection time from the moment a sample was introduced to the display of the results was 1 h. To conclude, the portable impedance immunosensing system for detection of S. Typhimurium achieved an LOD that is comparable with commercial electrochemical impedance instruments. The developed impedance immunosensor has advantages in portability, low cost, rapid detection and label-free features showing a great potential for in-field detection of foodborne pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunosensor; portable; label-free; Salmonella Typhimurium; rapid detection immunosensor; portable; label-free; Salmonella Typhimurium; rapid detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wen, T.; Wang, R.; Sotero, A.; Li, Y. A Portable Impedance Immunosensing System for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium. Sensors 2017, 17, 1973.

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