Next Article in Journal
Electrospinning Hetero-Nanofibers In2O3/SnO2 of Homotype Heterojunction with High Gas Sensing Activity
Next Article in Special Issue
A Simple and Selective Fluorescent Sensor Chip for Indole-3-Butyric Acid in Mung Bean Sprouts Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Coatings
Previous Article in Journal
Just-in-Time Correntropy Soft Sensor with Noisy Data for Industrial Silicon Content Prediction
Previous Article in Special Issue
Adenosine Triphosphate-Encapsulated Liposomes with Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering-Based Immunoassays
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081831

Investigating the Influence of Temperature on the Kaolinite-Base Synthesis of Zeolite and Urease Immobilization for the Potential Fabrication of Electrochemical Urea Biosensors

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG 25, Legon, Accra, Ghana
2
School of Engineering, Ulster University, Jordanstown BT37 0QB, UK
3
Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG 25, Legon, Accra, Ghana
4
West African Centre for Cell Biology of Infectious Pathogens, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG 25, Legon, Accra, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 22 July 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Biosensing with Nanoparticles)
Full-Text   |   PDF [19454 KB, uploaded 10 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Temperature-dependent zeolite synthesis has revealed a unique surface morphology, surface area and pore size which influence the immobilization of urease on gold electrode supports for biosensor fabrication. XRD characterization has identified zeolite X (Na) at all crystallization temperatures tested. However, N2 adsorption and desorption results showed a pore size and pore volume of zeolite X (Na) 60 °C, zeolite X (Na) 70 °C and zeolite X (Na) 90 °C to range from 1.92 nm to 2.45 nm and 0.012 cm3/g to 0.061 cm3/g, respectively, with no significant differences. The specific surface area of zeolite X (Na) at 60, 70 and 90 °C was 64 m2/g, 67 m2/g and 113 m2/g, respectively. The pore size, specific surface area and pore volumes of zeolite X (Na) 80 °C and zeolite X (Na) 100 °C were dramatically increased to 4.21 nm, 295 m2/g, 0.762 cm3/g and 4.92 nm, 389 m2/g, 0.837 cm3/g, in that order. The analytical performance of adsorbed urease on zeolite X (Na) surface was also investigated using cyclic voltammetry measurements, and the results showed distinct cathodic and anodic peaks by zeolite X (Na) 80 °C and zeolite X (Na) 100 °C. These zeolites’ molar conductance was measured as a function of urea concentration and gave an average polynomial regression fit of 0.948. The findings in this study suggest that certain physicochemical properties, such as crystallization temperature and pH, are critical parameters for improving the morphological properties of zeolites synthesized from natural sources for various biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: zeolites; electrochemical; urea; biosensor; nanoparticles zeolites; electrochemical; urea; biosensor; nanoparticles
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Anderson, D.E.; Balapangu, S.; Fleischer, H.N.A.; Viade, R.A.; Krampa, F.D.; Kanyong, P.; Awandare, G.A.; Tiburu, E.K. Investigating the Influence of Temperature on the Kaolinite-Base Synthesis of Zeolite and Urease Immobilization for the Potential Fabrication of Electrochemical Urea Biosensors. Sensors 2017, 17, 1831.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top