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Open AccessArticle

Thin-Film Quantum Dot Photodiode for Monolithic Infrared Image Sensors

1
IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
2
KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
3
Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
4
Center for Nano- and Biophotonics (NB-Photonics), Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
5
Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB–ETRO), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of “Pawel E. Malinowski, Epimitheas Georgitzikis, Jorick Maes, Mehedi Mamun, Oscar Enzing, Fortunato Frazzica, Jan Van Olmen, Piet De Moor, Paul Heremans, Zeger Hens, and David Cheyns. Monolithic Near Infrared Image Sensors Enabled by Quantum Dot Photodetector. In Proceedings of the 2017 International Image Sensor Workshop, Hiroshima, Japan, 30 May–2 June 2017”.
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2867; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122867
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 10 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue on the 2017 International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW))
Imaging in the infrared wavelength range has been fundamental in scientific, military and surveillance applications. Currently, it is a crucial enabler of new industries such as autonomous mobility (for obstacle detection), augmented reality (for eye tracking) and biometrics. Ubiquitous deployment of infrared cameras (on a scale similar to visible cameras) is however prevented by high manufacturing cost and low resolution related to the need of using image sensors based on flip-chip hybridization. One way to enable monolithic integration is by replacing expensive, small-scale III–V-based detector chips with narrow bandgap thin-films compatible with 8- and 12-inch full-wafer processing. This work describes a CMOS-compatible pixel stack based on lead sulfide quantum dots (PbS QD) with tunable absorption peak. Photodiode with a 150-nm thick absorber in an inverted architecture shows dark current of 10−6 A/cm2 at −2 V reverse bias and EQE above 20% at 1440 nm wavelength. Optical modeling for top illumination architecture can improve the contact transparency to 70%. Additional cooling (193 K) can improve the sensitivity to 60 dB. This stack can be integrated on a CMOS ROIC, enabling order-of-magnitude cost reduction for infrared sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: infrared; imaging; image sensor; quantum dot; PbS; monolithic integration infrared; imaging; image sensor; quantum dot; PbS; monolithic integration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Malinowski, P.E.; Georgitzikis, E.; Maes, J.; Vamvaka, I.; Frazzica, F.; Van Olmen, J.; De Moor, P.; Heremans, P.; Hens, Z.; Cheyns, D. Thin-Film Quantum Dot Photodiode for Monolithic Infrared Image Sensors. Sensors 2017, 17, 2867.

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