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Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1478;

Ambient Sound-Based Collaborative Localization of Indeterministic Devices

Pervasive Systems Group, University of Twente, Enschede 7522 NB, The Netherlands
ASTRON, Dwingeloo 7991 PD, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lyudmila Mihaylova, Byung-Gyu Kim and Debi Prosad Dogra
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalable Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Localization is essential in wireless sensor networks. To our knowledge, no prior work has utilized low-cost devices for collaborative localization based on only ambient sound, without the support of local infrastructure. The reason may be the fact that most low-cost devices are indeterministic and suffer from uncertain input latencies. This uncertainty makes accurate localization challenging. Therefore, we present a collaborative localization algorithm (Cooperative Localization on Android with ambient Sound Sources (CLASS)) that simultaneously localizes the position of indeterministic devices and ambient sound sources without local infrastructure. The CLASS algorithm deals with the uncertainty by splitting the devices into subsets so that outliers can be removed from the time difference of arrival values and localization results. Since Android is indeterministic, we select Android devices to evaluate our approach. The algorithm is evaluated with an outdoor experiment and achieves a mean Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.18 m with a standard deviation of 0.22 m. Estimated directions towards the sound sources have a mean RMSE of 17.5 ° and a standard deviation of 2.3 °. These results show that it is feasible to simultaneously achieve a relative positioning of both devices and sound sources with sufficient accuracy, even when using non-deterministic devices and platforms, such as Android. View Full-Text
Keywords: sound localization; collaborative localization; opportunistic localization; wireless sensor networks; smartphones; Android; input latency sound localization; collaborative localization; opportunistic localization; wireless sensor networks; smartphones; Android; input latency

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Kamminga, J.; Le, D.; Havinga, P. Ambient Sound-Based Collaborative Localization of Indeterministic Devices. Sensors 2016, 16, 1478.

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