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Open AccessArticle

Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers

Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Elster Metering Limited, Stafford ST16 3EF, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dipen Sinha and Cristian Pantea
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1363;
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 August 2016 / Published: 25 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasonic Sensors)
Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT) for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL) above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ) 15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound; air-coupled; flexural; transducer ultrasound; air-coupled; flexural; transducer
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Eriksson, T.J.R.; Laws, M.; Kang, L.; Fan, Y.; Ramadas, S.N.; Dixon, S. Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers. Sensors 2016, 16, 1363.

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