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Open AccessArticle

System Description and First Application of an FPGA-Based Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography

Philips Chair for Medical Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 20, Aachen 52074, Germany
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Academic Editor: Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16081158
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 21 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noninvasive Biomedical Sensors)
A new prototype of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography system is presented. The system uses a field-programmable gate array as a main controller and is configured to measure at different frequencies simultaneously through a composite waveform. Both real and imaginary components of the data are computed for each frequency and sent to the personal computer over an ethernet connection, where both time-difference imaging and frequency-difference imaging are reconstructed and visualized. The system has been tested for both time-difference and frequency-difference imaging for diverse sets of frequency pairs in a resistive/capacitive test unit and in self-experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first work that shows preliminary frequency-difference images of in-vivo experiments. Results of time-difference imaging were compared with simulation results and shown that the new prototype performs well at all frequencies in the tested range of 60 kHz–960 kHz. For frequency-difference images, further development of algorithms and an improved normalization process is required to correctly reconstruct and interpreted the resulting images. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical impedance tomography; multi-frequency; time-difference imaging; frequency-difference imaging; complex impedance; FPGA; bioimpedance spectroscopy electrical impedance tomography; multi-frequency; time-difference imaging; frequency-difference imaging; complex impedance; FPGA; bioimpedance spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aguiar Santos, S.; Robens, A.; Boehm, A.; Leonhardt, S.; Teichmann, D. System Description and First Application of an FPGA-Based Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography. Sensors 2016, 16, 1158. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16081158

AMA Style

Aguiar Santos S, Robens A, Boehm A, Leonhardt S, Teichmann D. System Description and First Application of an FPGA-Based Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography. Sensors. 2016; 16(8):1158. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16081158

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aguiar Santos, Susana; Robens, Anne; Boehm, Anna; Leonhardt, Steffen; Teichmann, Daniel. 2016. "System Description and First Application of an FPGA-Based Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography" Sensors 16, no. 8: 1158. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16081158

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