- freely available
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 586; doi:10.3390/s16040586
Abstract: This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds). HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.). Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity.
2. Materials and Methods
- Versatile placement: the sensors can be easily placed on any playground element without instructions, taking into account the diversity of materials, current condition, surface finishes, dimensions, and positions.
- Intuitive single solution grip: HybridPLAY is mainly for kids, so it requires an intuitive grip, allowing children to easily change the game whenever they want with minimal installation time.
- Customizable and suitable for all ages: though initially intended for children, HybridPLAY is versatile and has an immense range of potential users.
- Compact and weather-resistant: naturality and impulsiveness are key in our games, so there’s no time for accessories.
- Simple Design from a single mould: a simple design lets us keep costs down, and makes the project viable.
2.1. First Version
2.2. Second Version
2.3. Third Version
3. Interface Design
3.1. Bluetooth Communication
3.2. Frame Rate
3.4. User Interaction
3.4.1. Springy Elements
3.4.2. The Swing
3.4.3. The Slide
3.4.4. Other Possibilities of User Interaction
4. Evaluation and Discussion
- Utopias, artistic residence, Intermediae Matadero (Madrid, Spain, 2007)—30 children, 10 adults
- A new economy, Ars Electrónica Festival (Linz, Austria, 2008)—40 children, 20 adults
- Amber 08 Festival (Istanbul, Turkey, 2008)—50 children, 10 adults
- Hybrid Playground, Techformance Festival (Murcia, Spain, 2009)—100 children, 30 adults
- Techformance, Arco 09, Stand Región de Murcia, (Murcia, Spain, 2009). Exhibition
- Hybrid Playground, LAboral Centro de Arte y Creación Industrial, (Gijón, Spain, 2009)—300 children, 60 adults
- Hybrid Playground, Mobilefest 09 (Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009)—200 children, 50 adults
- Taller Hybrid Playground (Valdemoro, Spain, 2009)—60 children, 20 adults
- Hybrid Playground WIP 09, (Barcelona, Spain, 2009)—40 children, 0 adults
- Hybrid Playground, MuPAI, Museo Pedagógico de Arte Infantil (Madrid, Spain, 2010)—0 children, 40 adults
- Hybrid Playground, PAM, Cal Masó, (Tarragona, Spain, 2010)—40 children, 10 adults
- Hybrid Playground Hó Play 2010, Certamen internacional de videojuegos independientes, (Bilbao, Sain, 2010)—40 children, 10 adults
- Paisatge?, Bolit La Rambla, (Girona, Spain, 2010)—200 children, 60 adults
- Create your world, Ars Electrónica Festival 11 (Linz, Austria, 2011)—50 children, 20 adults
- Mercé Arts al Carrer (Barcelona, Spain, 2012)—200 children, 100 adults
- Games on public space: Hybrid Play, Conference at School of Software and Microelectronics, Beijin University, (Beijin, China, 2014).
- Workshop in TEDx Barcelona education (Barcelona, Spain, 2015)—0 children, 30 adults
- Workshop Medialab-Prado (Madrid, Spain, 2015)—12 children, 25 adults
- Workshop La Fira d’Oci Infantil i Juvenil de Nadal, (Castellón, Spain, 2016)—100 children, 50 adults
4.3. Quantitative Evaluation
4.4. Extended Uses of HybridPLAY
5. Conclusions and Further Work
Conflicts of Interest
- Common Sense Zero to Eight: Children’s Media Use in America 2013. Available online: https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/zero-to-eight-childrens-media-use-in-america-2013 (accessed on 18 December 2015).
- Muñoz Gutiérrez, C. Juegos virtuales. Identidad y subversión. Astrágalo 2000, 14, 67–82. [Google Scholar]
- Hauge, M.R.; Gentile, D.A. Video game addiction among adolescents: Associations with academic performance and aggression. In Proceedings of the Society for Research in Child Development Conference, Tampa, FL, USA, 24–27 April 2003.
- Meadows, M. I, Avatar: The Culture and Consequences of Having a Second Life; New Riders Publishing: San Francisco, CA, USA, 2007; p. 144. [Google Scholar]
- Jerald, J.; Block, M.D. Issues for DSM-V: Internet addiction. Am. J. Psychiatr. 2008, 165, 306–307. [Google Scholar]
- Van Rooij, A.J.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Van Den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.; Van De Mheen, D. Online video game addiction: Identification of addicted adolescent gamers. Addiction 2011, 106, 205–212. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Festl, R.; Scharkow, M.; Quandt, T. Problematic computer game use among adolescents, younger and older adults. Addiction 2013, 108, 592–599. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Perales, C.D.; Portalés, C.; Sanmartín, F. Sonic gestures applied to a percussive dialogue in TanGram using Wii remotes. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Entertainment Computing (ICEC), Paris, France, 3–5 September 2009; Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 2009; pp. 216–221. [Google Scholar]
- Schou, T.; Gardner, H.J. A Wii remote, a game engine, five sensor bars and a virtual reality theatre. In Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction: Entertaining User Interfaces, Adelaide, Australia, 28–30 November 2007.
- Shih, C.-H.; Yeh, J.-C.; Shih, C.-T.; Chang, M.-L. Assisting children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder actively reduces limb hyperactive behavior with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through controlling environmental stimulation. Res. Dev. Disabil. 2011, 32, 1631–1637. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Zhu, W.; Vader, A.; Chadda, A.; Leu, M.; Liu, X.; Vance, J. Wii remote–based low-cost motion capture for automated assembly simulation. Virtual Real. 2013, 17, 125–136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vera, L.; Gimeno, J.; Coma, I.; Fernández, M. Augmented Mirror: Interactive Augmented Reality System Based on Kinect. In Proceedings of the 13th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction—INTERACT 2011, Lisbon, Portugal, 5–9 September 2011.
- Gimeno, J.; Olanda, R.; Martinez, B.; Sanchez, F.M. Multiuser augmented reality system for indoor exhibitions. In Proceedings of the 13th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction—Volume Part IV, Lisbon, Portugal, 5–9 September 2011; Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 2011; pp. 576–579. [Google Scholar]
- Hsu, S.-J.; Tseng, W.-S.; Hsu, F.-C.; Lo, Y.-Y. iSpine: A motion-sensing edutainment system for improving children’s spinal health. In CHI ’13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems; ACM: Paris, France, 2013; pp. 2635–2638. [Google Scholar]
- Han, J.; Xiao, Z.; Han, L.; Xu, Y.; Li, N.; Reika, S. A special edutainment system based on somatosensory game. In Proceedings of the 2015 6th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS), Beijing, China, 23–25 September 2015; pp. 882–885.
- Parés, N.; Durany, J.; Carreras, A. Massive flux design for an interactive water installation: Water games. In Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, Valencia, Spain, 15–17 June 2005.
- Seitinger, S. An ecological approach to children’s playground props. In Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Interaction Design and Children, Tampere, Finland, 7–9 June 2006.
- Seitinger, S.; Sylvan, E.; Zuckerman, O.; Popovic, M.; Zuckerman, O. A new playground experience: Going digital? In CHI ’06 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Montréal, QC, Canada, 22–27 April 2006.
- Lund, H.H.; Klitbo, T.; Jessen, C. Playware technology for physically activating play. Artif. Life Robot. 2005, 9, 165–174. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ruokamo, H.; Kangas, M.; Korva, S. InnoPlay—Innovative Playful Learning Environments (2007–2010). Available online: http://www.ulapland.fi/InEnglish/Units/Centre-for-Media-Pedagogy/Research/Completed-projects/InnoPlay-(2007-2010) (accessed on 22 December 2015).
- Playnetic Let’s Go Outside and Play with Energy! Interactive Play + Human Power = Playnetic. Available online: http://www.playnetic.nl/ (accessed on 22 December 2015).
- Kompan Icon. Available online: http://icon.kompan.com (accessed on 22 December 2015).
- I-play. Available online: http://www.intelligentplay.co.uk (accessed on 22 December 2015).
- Playworld. The World is Our Playground. Available online: http://www.playworld.global (accessed on 22 December 2015).
- Motion Fitness. Playworld Neos 360. Available online: http://www.motionfitness.com/Neos-360-p/play-neos360.htm (accessed on 22 December 2015).
- Yalp. A New Way to Play. Sona. Available online: http://www.yalpinteractive.com/sona (accessed on 22 December 2015).
- Díaz, D.J.; Boj, C.; Mañas, M. “SeeSaw videogame” a new multi-user collaborative game device. In Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, Singapore, 3–4 June 2004; ACM: New York, NY, USA, 2004; pp. 302–306. [Google Scholar]
- Arduino Mini. Available online: https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardMini (accessed on 13 January 2016).
- DIGI. XBee 802.15.4. Available online: http://www.digi.com/products/xbee-rf-solutions/modules/xbee-series1-module (accessed on 13 January 2016).
- Pygame. Available online: http://www.pygame.org/hifi.html (accessed on 13 January 2016).
- HybridPLAY. Play Smartphone games using the playground as a control interface. Available online: http://www.hybridplay.com/ (accessed on 13 Januray 2016).
- Brooke, J. SUS-A quick and dirty usability scale. Usability Eval. Ind. 1996, 189, 194. [Google Scholar]
- Bangor, A.; Kortum, P.T.; Miller, J.T. Determining what individual SUS scores mean: Adding an adjective rating scale. J. Usability Stud. 2009, 4, 114–123. [Google Scholar]
- Brooke, J. SUS: A retrospective. J. Usability Stud. 2013, 8, 29–40. [Google Scholar]
|First Version||Second Version||Third Version|
|Voltage||5 V||5 V||3.3 V|
|Batteries||6 AA 25,000 mA 1.2 V (x9 batteries)||2000 mAh polymer lithium rechargeable battery||1000 mAh polymer lithium rechargeable battery|
|Accelerometer||3 axis ± 2 g||3 axis ± 3g||3 axis ± 16 g|
|Gyroscope||-||-||±2000 °/sec (dps)|
|Infrared proximity sensor||10–80 cm||4–40 cm||3–40 cm|
|RFID||-||125 kHz read frequency EM4001 64-bit RFID tag compatible||(optional) 13.56 MHz read frequency. |
MFC and PCD mode for ISO/IEC14443-3 Type B and ISO/IEC14443-4 Type B cards
|Wireless protocol||XBee/WiFi||XBee/WiFi||Bluetooth 4.1 LE|
|Full duplex communication||no||no||yes|
|Frame rate||10 fps||15 fps||30 fps|
|Delay (approx.)||2000 ms||1500 ms||100 ms|
|Game programming language||pygame||pygame||cocos2dx/Unity|
|Supported handheld devices||Nokia N850||Nokia N850||Android and IOs SmartPhone|
|Adaptable to all elements in the playground||no (four different designs)||yes||yes|
|Ergonomic case design||no||no||yes|
|Sound||no||yes (only the sensor)||yes (sensor and videogames)|
|Complexity of animations||low||medium||high|
|Video games||Puzzle City||Puzzle City (improved)||Space Kids, Puzzle City 2, Pac-Man, Pong, Moskis, HybridEDU|
|-||Beginning. The group of children arrives to the playground|
|10 min||Children freely play with the elements of the playground. Observation.|
|5 min||Brief talk relating to the games in the playground. Some questions arise, such as:
|5 min||Brief talk relating to the workshop, explaining:
|10 min||The elements of the game: the way the HybridPLAY sensors are integrated in the different elements of the playground and how do they work.|
|5 min||Creation of gaming teams:
Each group of players has a game coordinador, which is the child that holds the smartphone.
For every mini game, the game responsibility changes, so all the kids will hold the smartphone and coordinate the team. The sensors are handed to the children.
|20 min||Game experience: Children freely play with the HybridPLAY platform integrated in the elements of the playground. Observation.|
The observers do not participate in the game, but only see the actions of their colleagues.
|5 min||Group rotation. Players become observers and vice versa.|
|20 min||Game experience.|
|15 min||Brief talk. Feedback from children. Some questions arise:|
What do you think about the game experience?
Do you find it funny?
Would you like to play more complex games following this system?
Was it easy to understand how it works?
As an observer, what have you seen?
What kind of games would you like to play at the playground?
What others improvements do you suggest for the system?
|-||End of the workshop|
|Videogame frequency (%)||f. 0||f. 1||f. 2||f. 3||f. 4||f. 0||f. 1||f. 2||f. 3||f. 4|
|1. I think that I would like to use this system frequently||3.28||0.57||2||4||3.78||0.45||2||4|
|2. I found the system unnecessarily complex||1.19||0.73||0||2||0.55||0.71||0||2|
|3. I thought the system was easy to use||3.59||0.55||2||4||3.78||0.49||2||4|
|4. I think that I would need the support of a technical person to be able to use this system||0.41||0.55||0||2||0.38||0.59||0||2|
|5. I found the various functions in this system were well integrated||3.22||0.48||2||4||3.82||0.39||3||4|
|6. I thought there was too much inconsistency in this system||0.69||0.81||0||2||0.55||0.60||0||2|
|7. I would imagine that the most people would learn to use this system very quickly||3.72||0.80||1||4||3.75||0.44||3||4|
|8. I found the system very cumbersome to use||0.69||0.58||0||2||0.49||0.68||0||2|
|9. I felt very confident using the system||3.38||0.60||2||4||3.65||0.55||2||4|
|10. I needed to learn a lot of things before I could get going with this system||0.25||0.43||0||1||0.33||0.47||0||1|
|1. I liked very much playing with the video games||3.69||0.46||3||4||3.84||0.37||3||4|
|2. I find the video games appropriated for my age and/or my children’s age||3.44||0.66||2||4||3.82||0.39||3||4|
|3. I liked very much the concept of playing with the elements of the park inside HybridPLAY||3.69||0.46||3||4||3.87||0.33||3||4|
|4. I find it very easy to collaborate with other friends in HybridPLAY||3.63||0.48||3||4||3.76||0.42||3||4|
|5. I would like to play more with HybridPLAY||3.72||0.45||3||4||3.87||0.33||3||4|
|6. I would like to recommend others to play with HybridPLAY||3.66||0.54||2||4||3.85||0.35||3||4|
© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).