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Article

Graphite Based Electrode for ECG Monitoring: Evaluation under Freshwater and Saltwater Conditions

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 460 Iksandeaero, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea
2
Department of Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 460 Iksandeaero, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Steffen Leonhardt and Daniel Teichmann
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040542
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noninvasive Biomedical Sensors)
We proposed new electrodes that are applicable for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring under freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions. Our proposed electrodes are made of graphite pencil lead (GPL), a general-purpose writing pencil. We have fabricated two types of electrode: a pencil lead solid type (PLS) electrode and a pencil lead powder type (PLP) electrode. In order to assess the qualities of the PLS and PLP electrodes, we compared their performance with that of a commercial Ag/AgCl electrode, under a total of seven different conditions: dry, freshwater immersion with/without movement, post-freshwater wet condition, saltwater immersion with/without movement, and post-saltwater wet condition. In both dry and post-freshwater wet conditions, all ECG-recorded PQRST waves were clearly discernible, with all types of electrodes, Ag/AgCl, PLS, and PLP. On the other hand, under the freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions with/without movement, as well as post-saltwater wet conditions, we found that the proposed PLS and PLP electrodes provided better ECG waveform quality, with significant statistical differences compared with the quality provided by Ag/AgCl electrodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphite; pencil lead; carbon; ECG electrode; dry electrode; ECG monitoring; underwater; freshwater; saltwater graphite; pencil lead; carbon; ECG electrode; dry electrode; ECG monitoring; underwater; freshwater; saltwater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thap, T.; Yoon, K.-H.; Lee, J. Graphite Based Electrode for ECG Monitoring: Evaluation under Freshwater and Saltwater Conditions. Sensors 2016, 16, 542. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040542

AMA Style

Thap T, Yoon K-H, Lee J. Graphite Based Electrode for ECG Monitoring: Evaluation under Freshwater and Saltwater Conditions. Sensors. 2016; 16(4):542. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040542

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thap, Tharoeun, Kwon-Ha Yoon, and Jinseok Lee. 2016. "Graphite Based Electrode for ECG Monitoring: Evaluation under Freshwater and Saltwater Conditions" Sensors 16, no. 4: 542. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040542

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