Next Article in Journal
Compressive Video Recovery Using Block Match Multi-Frame Motion Estimation Based on Single Pixel Cameras
Previous Article in Journal
SHM-Based Probabilistic Fatigue Life Prediction for Bridges Based on FE Model Updating
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(3), 313;

Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar

Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
School for the Environment, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125, USA
CSIRO Land & Water, GPO Box 1666, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 600 Suffolk Street, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Precision Agriculture Research Group, School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Assefa M. Melesse
Received: 1 December 2015 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4482 KB, uploaded 2 March 2016]   |  


Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρapp), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρapp are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρapp error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρapp from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars. View Full-Text
Keywords: terrestrial lidar; vegetation structure; radiometric calibration; DWEL; dual-wavelength lidar; full-waveform lidar terrestrial lidar; vegetation structure; radiometric calibration; DWEL; dual-wavelength lidar; full-waveform lidar

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Jupp, D.L.B.; Strahler, A.H.; Schaaf, C.B.; Howe, G.; Hewawasam, K.; Douglas, E.S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.A.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.J.; Schaefer, M. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar. Sensors 2016, 16, 313.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top