Next Article in Journal
An Imaging Sensor-Aided Vision Navigation Approach that Uses a Geo-Referenced Image Database
Next Article in Special Issue
An Alignment Method for the Integration of Underwater 3D Data Captured by a Stereovision System and an Acoustic Camera
Previous Article in Journal
Performance Evaluation of the New Compound-Carrier-Modulated Signal for Future Navigation Signals
Previous Article in Special Issue
Geometric and Optic Characterization of a Hemispherical Dome Port for Underwater Photogrammetry
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, RD4/RD2, Wischhofstr. 1-3, 24148 Kiel, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fabio Menna, Fabio Remondino and Hans-Gerd Maas
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 164;
Received: 1 November 2015 / Revised: 20 January 2016 / Accepted: 22 January 2016 / Published: 28 January 2016
PDF [3344 KB, uploaded 28 January 2016]


Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor. View Full-Text
Keywords: AUV; photogrammetry; camera; survey; deep sea; mapping; mosaicking; Photoscan AUV; photogrammetry; camera; survey; deep sea; mapping; mosaicking; Photoscan

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kwasnitschka, T.; Köser, K.; Sticklus, J.; Rothenbeck, M.; Weiß, T.; Wenzlaff, E.; Schoening, T.; Triebe, L.; Steinführer, A.; Devey, C.; Greinert, J. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System. Sensors 2016, 16, 164.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top