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Sensors 2016, 16(1), 48;

Geometric and Optic Characterization of a Hemispherical Dome Port for Underwater Photogrammetry

3D Optical Metrology unit, Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK), via Sommarive 18, Trento 38123, Italy
Politecnico di Milano, ABC Dep. 3DSurvey Group, via Ponzio 31, Milano 20133, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
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The popularity of automatic photogrammetric techniques has promoted many experiments in underwater scenarios leading to quite impressive visual results, even by non-experts. Despite these achievements, a deep understanding of camera and lens behaviors as well as optical phenomena involved in underwater operations is fundamental to better plan field campaigns and anticipate the achievable results. The paper presents a geometric investigation of a consumer grade underwater camera housing, manufactured by NiMAR and equipped with a 7′′ dome port. After a review of flat and dome ports, the work analyzes, using simulations and real experiments, the main optical phenomena involved when operating a camera underwater. Specific aspects which deal with photogrammetric acquisitions are considered with some tests in laboratory and in a swimming pool. Results and considerations are shown and commented. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater; photogrammetry; camera calibration; depth of field underwater; photogrammetry; camera calibration; depth of field

Figure 1

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Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.; Fassi, F.; Remondino, F. Geometric and Optic Characterization of a Hemispherical Dome Port for Underwater Photogrammetry. Sensors 2016, 16, 48.

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