Next Article in Journal
Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting
Next Article in Special Issue
Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor
Previous Article in Journal
A Micro-Preconcentrator Combined Olfactory Sensing System with a Micromechanical Cantilever Sensor for Detecting 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Gas Vapor
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 18178-18196;

Twenty Years of Rad-Hard K14 SPAD in Space Projects

Dept. of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1, Czech Republic
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Caterina Ciminelli
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Sensors in Space)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1050 KB, uploaded 28 July 2015]   |  


During last two decades, several photon counting detectors have been developed in our laboratory. One of the most promising detector coming from our group silicon K14 Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) is presented with its valuable features and space applications. Based on the control electronics, it can be operated in both gated and non-gated mode. Although it was designed for photon counting detection, it can be employed for multiphoton detection as well. With respect to control electronics employed, the timing jitter can be as low as 20 ps RMS. Detection efficiency is about 40%in range of 500 nm to 800 nm. The detector including gating and quenching circuitry has outstanding timing stability. Due to its radiation resistivity, the diode withstands 100 krad gamma ray dose without parameters degradation. Single photon detectors based on K14 SPAD were used for planetary altimeter and atmospheric lidar in MARS92/96 and Mars Surveyor ’98 space projects, respectively. Recent space applications of K14 SPAD comprises LIDAR and mainly time transfer between ground stations and artificial satellites. These include Laser Time Transfer, Time Transfer by Laser Link, and European Laser Timing projects. View Full-Text
Keywords: SPAD; rad-hard; photon counting; space SPAD; rad-hard; photon counting; space

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Michálek, V.; Procházka, I.; Blažej, J. Twenty Years of Rad-Hard K14 SPAD in Space Projects. Sensors 2015, 15, 18178-18196.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top