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QD-Based FRET Probes at a Glance

Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 W. Taylor St., Chicago, IL 60607-7061, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Niko Hildebrandt, Igor Medintz and Russ Algar
Sensors 2015, 15(6), 13028-13051;
Received: 8 April 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 22 May 2015 / Published: 4 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue FRET Biosensors)
PDF [3238 KB, uploaded 4 June 2015]


The unique optoelectronic properties of quantum dots (QDs) give them significant advantages over traditional organic dyes, not only as fluorescent labels for bioimaging, but also as emissive sensing probes. QD sensors that function via manipulation of fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) are of special interest due to the multiple response mechanisms that may be utilized, which in turn imparts enhanced flexibility in their design. They may also function as ratiometric, or “color-changing” probes. In this review, we describe the fundamentals of FRET and provide examples of QD-FRET sensors as grouped by their response mechanisms such as link cleavage and structural rearrangement. An overview of early works, recent advances, and various models of QD-FRET sensors for the measurement of pH and oxygen, as well as the presence of metal ions and proteins such as enzymes, are also provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: semiconductor quantum dots; Förster resonance energy transfer; optical sensors; photoluminescence semiconductor quantum dots; Förster resonance energy transfer; optical sensors; photoluminescence

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shamirian, A.; Ghai, A.; Snee, P.T. QD-Based FRET Probes at a Glance. Sensors 2015, 15, 13028-13051.

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