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Sensors 2015, 15(5), 11889-11927;

Fruit Quality Evaluation Using Spectroscopy Technology: A Review

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arun K. Bhunia
Received: 17 March 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Food Safety and Quality)
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An overview is presented with regard to applications of visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging and hyperspectral imaging techniques for quality attributes measurement and variety discrimination of various fruit species, i.e., apple, orange, kiwifruit, peach, grape, strawberry, grape, jujube, banana, mango and others. Some commonly utilized chemometrics including pretreatment methods, variable selection methods, discriminant methods and calibration methods are briefly introduced. The comprehensive review of applications, which concentrates primarily on Vis/NIR spectroscopy, are arranged according to fruit species. Most of the applications are focused on variety discrimination or the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC), acidity and firmness, but also some measurements involving dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and pigments have been reported. The feasibility of different spectral modes, i.e., reflectance, interactance and transmittance, are discussed. Optimal variable selection methods and calibration methods for measuring different attributes of different fruit species are addressed. Special attention is paid to sample preparation and the influence of the environment. Areas where further investigation is needed and problems concerning model robustness and model transfer are identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vis/NIR; fruit quality; chemometrics; discrimination; characteristic wavelength; SSC; acidity Vis/NIR; fruit quality; chemometrics; discrimination; characteristic wavelength; SSC; acidity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, H.; Peng, J.; Xie, C.; Bao, Y.; He, Y. Fruit Quality Evaluation Using Spectroscopy Technology: A Review. Sensors 2015, 15, 11889-11927.

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