This paper proposes a method for mobile robot localization in a partially unknown indoor environment. The method fuses two types of range measurements: the range from the robot to the beacons measured by ultrasonic sensors and the range from the robot to the walls surrounding the robot measured by a laser range finder (LRF). For the fusion, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is utilized. Because finding the Jacobian matrix is not feasible for range measurement using an LRF, UKF has an advantage in this situation over the extended KF. The locations of the beacons and range data from the beacons are available, whereas the correspondence of the range data to the beacon is not given. Therefore, the proposed method also deals with the problem of data association to determine which beacon corresponds to the given range data. The proposed approach is evaluated using different sets of design parameter values and is compared with the method that uses only an LRF or ultrasonic beacons. Comparative analysis shows that even though ultrasonic beacons are sparsely populated, have a large error and have a slow update rate, they improve the localization performance when fused with the LRF measurement. In addition, proper adjustment of the UKF design parameters is crucial for full utilization of the UKF approach for sensor fusion. This study contributes to the derivation of a UKF-based design methodology to fuse two exteroceptive measurements that are complementary to each other in localization.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited