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Sensors 2015, 15(10), 27215-27229;

Robust Analysis of Network-Based Real-Time Kinematic for GNSS-Derived Heights

Department of Geoinformation Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Korea
Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
National Geodetic Survey Department, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 21 August 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3705 KB, uploaded 26 October 2015]   |  


New guidelines and procedures for real-time (RT) network-based solutions are required in order to support Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) derived heights. Two kinds of experiments were carried out to analyze the performance of the network-based real-time kinematic (RTK) solutions. New test marks were installed in different surrounding environments, and the existing GPS benchmarks were used for analyzing the effect of different factors, such as baseline lengths, antenna types, on the final accuracy and reliability of the height estimation. The RT solutions are categorized into three groups: single-base RTK, multiple-epoch network RTK (mRTN), and single-epoch network RTK (sRTN). The RTK solution can be biased up to 9 mm depending on the surrounding environment, but there was no notable bias for a longer reference base station (about 30 km) In addition, the occupation time for the network RTK was investigated in various cases. There is no explicit bias in the solution for different durations, but smoother results were obtained for longer durations. Further investigation is needed into the effect of changing the occupation time between solutions and into the possibility of using single-epoch solutions in precise determination of heights by GNSS. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; real-time kinematic (RTK); network RTK; GNSS-derived heights; GPS benchmarks GNSS; real-time kinematic (RTK); network RTK; GNSS-derived heights; GPS benchmarks

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bae, T.-S.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.; Mader, G.; Dennis, M. Robust Analysis of Network-Based Real-Time Kinematic for GNSS-Derived Heights. Sensors 2015, 15, 27215-27229.

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