Next Article in Journal
A Low Cost Matching Motion Estimation Sensor Based on the NIOS II Microprocessor
Previous Article in Journal
On Increasing Network Lifetime in Body Area Networks Using Global Routing with Energy Consumption Balancing
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13109-13125;

An Automatic Critical Care Urine Meter

Department of Information and Communications Systems Engineering, University San Pablo CEU, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain
Centre for Automation and Robotics, CSIC-UPM, Ctra. Campo Real, Km. 0,200, La Poveda, Arganda del Rey, 28500 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2012 / Revised: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [355 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]   |  


Nowadays patients admitted to critical care units have most of their physiological parameters measured automatically by sophisticated commercial monitoring devices. More often than not, these devices supervise whether the values of the parameters they measure lie within a pre-established range, and issue warning of deviations from this range by triggering alarms. The automation of measuring and supervising tasks not only discharges the healthcare staff of a considerable workload but also avoids human errors in these repetitive and monotonous tasks. Arguably, the most relevant physiological parameter that is still measured and supervised manually by critical care unit staff is urine output (UO). In this paper we present a patent-pending device that provides continuous and accurate measurements of patient’s UO. The device uses capacitive sensors to take continuous measurements of the height of the column of liquid accumulated in two chambers that make up a plastic container. The first chamber, where the urine inputs, has a small volume. Once it has been filled it overflows into a second bigger chamber. The first chamber provides accurate UO measures of patients whose UO has to be closely supervised, while the second one avoids the need for frequent interventions by the nursing staff to empty the container. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensors; urine output; critical care; capacitive sensors; patient monitoring biosensors; urine output; critical care; capacitive sensors; patient monitoring

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Otero, A.; Fernandez, R.; Apalkov, A.; Armada, M. An Automatic Critical Care Urine Meter. Sensors 2012, 12, 13109-13125.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top