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Article

Exploring Routes to Coexistence: Developing and Testing a Human–Elephant Conflict-Management Framework for African Elephant-Range Countries

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Linking Conservation and Development, 69198 Schriesheim, Germany
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cE3c-Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
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Royal Place Limited, Lilongwe P.O. Box 30131, Malawi
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Wildlife Conservation Society, Niassa Special Reserve, Maputo P.O. Box 163, Mozambique
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Department of National Parks and Wildlife, Lilongwe P.O. Box 30131, Malawi
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Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Global Project Partnership against Wildlife Crime in Africa and Asia, 65760 Eschborn, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michelle Henley
Diversity 2022, 14(7), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14070525
Received: 4 May 2022 / Revised: 24 June 2022 / Accepted: 27 June 2022 / Published: 29 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elephants: Moving from Conflict to Coexistence with People)
Creating a future for elephants and people is a highly complex and dynamic challenge, involving social, behavioral, and ecological dimensions as well as multiple actors with various interests. To foster learning from human–elephant conflict (HEC) management projects and share best practices, a study was conducted to review the management of conflicts between elephants and humans in 12 African countries by qualitative expert interviews. Based on this information, a HEC management framework was developed in a two-tiered process. In the first phase, the theory of the framework was developed. In a second phase, the theoretical framework was validated and adjusted through stakeholder participation in two southern African projects (in Mozambique and Malawi). This holistic approach considers environmental as well as social, political, cultural, and economic factors directly or indirectly affecting interactions between people and wildlife. The framework integrates six interlinked strategies to guide managers and conservation practitioners to address HWC drivers and mitigate their impact. A legal environment and spatial planning form the basis of the framework. Social strategies, including meaningful stakeholder engagement and design of appropriate institutional structures and processes are considered the heart of the framework. Technical and financial strategies represent its arms and hands. At the top, monitoring steers all processes, provides feedback for adjustment, and informs decisions. The integration and coordination of these six strategies has great potential as a guiding route to human–wildlife coexistence in Africa and elsewhere. View Full-Text
Keywords: human–wildlife conflict; community-based conservation; participatory process; institutional fit; Loxodonta africana human–wildlife conflict; community-based conservation; participatory process; institutional fit; Loxodonta africana
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gross, E.M.; Pereira, J.G.; Shaba, T.; Bilério, S.; Kumchedwa, B.; Lienenlüke, S. Exploring Routes to Coexistence: Developing and Testing a Human–Elephant Conflict-Management Framework for African Elephant-Range Countries. Diversity 2022, 14, 525. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14070525

AMA Style

Gross EM, Pereira JG, Shaba T, Bilério S, Kumchedwa B, Lienenlüke S. Exploring Routes to Coexistence: Developing and Testing a Human–Elephant Conflict-Management Framework for African Elephant-Range Countries. Diversity. 2022; 14(7):525. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14070525

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gross, Eva M., Joana G. Pereira, Tadeyo Shaba, Samuel Bilério, Brighton Kumchedwa, and Stephanie Lienenlüke. 2022. "Exploring Routes to Coexistence: Developing and Testing a Human–Elephant Conflict-Management Framework for African Elephant-Range Countries" Diversity 14, no. 7: 525. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14070525

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