Next Article in Journal
Citizen Science Contributions to Address Biodiversity Loss and Conservation Planning in a Rapidly Developing Region
Next Article in Special Issue
Molecular Survey of Pathogens in Wild Amazon Parrot Nestlings: Implications for Conservation
Previous Article in Journal
A Participatory Agrobiodiversity Conservation Approach in the Oases: Community Actions for the Promotion of Sustainable Development in Fragile Areas
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genetic Assignment Tests to Identify the Probable Geographic Origin of a Captive Specimen of Military Macaw (Ara militaris) in Mexico: Implications for Conservation

Parrot Free-Flight as a Conservation Tool

Schubot Avian Health Center, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Liberty Wings Freeflight Training, P.O. Box 169, McNeal, AZ 85617, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luc Legal, José L. Tella, Martina Carrete and Guillermo Blanco
Diversity 2021, 13(6), 254;
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 25 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 8 June 2021
The release of captive-raised parrots to create or supplement wild populations has been critiqued due to variable survival rates and unreliable flocking behavior. Private bird owners free-fly their parrots in outdoor environments and utilize techniques that could address the needs of conservation breed and release projects. We present methods and results of a free-flight training technique used for 3 parrot flocks: A large-bodied (8 macaws of 3 species and 2 hybrids), small-bodied (25 individuals of 4 species), and a Sun Parakeet flock (4 individuals of 1 species). Obtained as chicks, the birds were hand-reared in an enriched environment. As juveniles, the birds were systematically exposed to increasingly complex wildland environments, mirroring the learning process of wild birds developing skills. The criteria we evaluated for each flock were predation rates, antipredator behavior, landscape navigation, and foraging. No parrots were lost to predation or disorientation during over 500 months of free-flight time, and all birds demonstrated effective flocking, desirable landscape navigation, and wild food usage. The authors conclude that this free-flight method may be directly applicable for conservation releases, similar to the use of falconry methods for raptor conservation. View Full-Text
Keywords: psittaciformes; macaw; conure; parakeet; reintroduction techniques; hand-rearing; pioneer flock; training; survival; flocking; predator evasion psittaciformes; macaw; conure; parakeet; reintroduction techniques; hand-rearing; pioneer flock; training; survival; flocking; predator evasion
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Woodman, C.; Biro, C.; Brightsmith, D.J. Parrot Free-Flight as a Conservation Tool. Diversity 2021, 13, 254.

AMA Style

Woodman C, Biro C, Brightsmith DJ. Parrot Free-Flight as a Conservation Tool. Diversity. 2021; 13(6):254.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Woodman, Constance, Chris Biro, and Donald J. Brightsmith 2021. "Parrot Free-Flight as a Conservation Tool" Diversity 13, no. 6: 254.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop