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Communication

Molecular Survey of Pathogens in Wild Amazon Parrot Nestlings: Implications for Conservation

1
Avian Ecopathology Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, 05508-270 São Paulo, Brazil
2
Society for Wildlife Research and Environmental Education, 80520-310 Curitiba, Brazil
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Parque das Aves, 85855-750 Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil
4
Neotropical Foundation of Brazil, 79290-000 Bonito, Brazil
5
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Passo Fundo, 99042-800 Passo Fundo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: José L. Tella, Guillermo Blanco and Martina Carrete
Diversity 2021, 13(6), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060272
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 12 June 2021 / Published: 16 June 2021
South America presents the greatest Psittacidae diversity in the world, but also has the highest numbers of threatened parrot species. Recently, exotic viruses have been detected in captive native psittacine birds in Brazil, however, their impacts on the health of wild parrots are still unknown. We evaluated the presence of Chlamydia psittaci, Psittacid alphaherpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1), avipoxvirus and beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in wild Amazona aestiva, A. brasiliensis and A. pretrei nestlings and in wild caught A. aestiva nestlings seized from illegal trade. Samples were collected from 205 wild nestlings and 90 nestlings from illegal trade and pathogen-specific PCR was performed for each sample. Chlamydia DNA prevalence was 4.7% in A. aestiva and 2.5% in A. brasiliensis sampled from the wild. Sequencing revealed that the C. psittaci sample belonged to the genotype A. PsHV-1, avipoxvirus and BFDV DNA was not detected. These results have conservation implications since they suggest that wild parrot populations have a low prevalence of the selected pathogens and, apparently, they were not reached by the exotic BFDV. Stricter health protocols should be established as condition to reintroduction of birds to the wild to guarantee the protection of Neotropical parrots. View Full-Text
Keywords: wild parrots; Chlamydia psittaci; Psittacid alphaherpesvirus 1; avipoxvirus; beak and feather disease virus; conservation threats wild parrots; Chlamydia psittaci; Psittacid alphaherpesvirus 1; avipoxvirus; beak and feather disease virus; conservation threats
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vaz, F.F.; Sipinski, E.A.B.; Seixas, G.H.F.; Prestes, N.P.; Martinez, J.; Raso, T.F. Molecular Survey of Pathogens in Wild Amazon Parrot Nestlings: Implications for Conservation. Diversity 2021, 13, 272. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060272

AMA Style

Vaz FF, Sipinski EAB, Seixas GHF, Prestes NP, Martinez J, Raso TF. Molecular Survey of Pathogens in Wild Amazon Parrot Nestlings: Implications for Conservation. Diversity. 2021; 13(6):272. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060272

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vaz, Frederico F., Elenise A.B. Sipinski, Gláucia H.F. Seixas, Nêmora P. Prestes, Jaime Martinez, and Tânia F. Raso 2021. "Molecular Survey of Pathogens in Wild Amazon Parrot Nestlings: Implications for Conservation" Diversity 13, no. 6: 272. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060272

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