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Article

Genetic Assignment Tests to Identify the Probable Geographic Origin of a Captive Specimen of Military Macaw (Ara militaris) in Mexico: Implications for Conservation

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Laboratorio de Ecología Molecular y Evolución, Unidad de Biotecnología y Prototipos FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida de los Barrios 1, Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla de Baz 54090, Mexico
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Laboratorio de Ecología, Unidad de Biotecnología y Prototipos, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida de los Barrios No. 1, Los Reyes Ixtacala, Tlalnepantla de Baz 54090, Mexico
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Wink
Diversity 2021, 13(6), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060245
Received: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 29 May 2021 / Published: 2 June 2021
The Military Macaw (Ara militaris) faces a number of serious conservation threats. The use of genetic markers and assignment tests may help to identify the geographic origin of captive individuals and improve conservation and management programs. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible geographic origin of a captive individual using genetic markers. We used a reference database of genotypes of 86 individuals previously shown to belong to two different genetic groups to determine the genetic assignment of the captive individual of unknown origin (captive specimen) and five individuals of known geographic origin (as positive controls). We evaluated the accuracy of three assignment/exclusion criteria to determine the success of correct assignment of the individual of unknown origin and the five positive control individuals. WICHLOCI estimated that eight loci were required to achieve an assignment success of 83%. The correct geographic origin of positive controls was identified with 83% confidence. All of the analyses assigned the captive individual to the genetic group from the Sierra Madre Oriental. Bayesian assignment tests, tests for genetic distance and allele frequency tests assigned the unknown individual to the locations from the Sierra Madre Oriental with a probability of 71.2–82.4%. We show that the use of genetic markers provides a promising tool for determining the origin of pets and individuals seized from the illegal animal trade to better inform decisions on reintroduction and improve conservation programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: conservation genetics; genetic assignment tests; probable geographic origin; Military Macaw conservation genetics; genetic assignment tests; probable geographic origin; Military Macaw
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rivera-Ortíz, F.A.; Juan-Espinosa, J.; Solórzano, S.; Contreras-González, A.M.; Arizmendi, M.d.C. Genetic Assignment Tests to Identify the Probable Geographic Origin of a Captive Specimen of Military Macaw (Ara militaris) in Mexico: Implications for Conservation. Diversity 2021, 13, 245. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060245

AMA Style

Rivera-Ortíz FA, Juan-Espinosa J, Solórzano S, Contreras-González AM, Arizmendi MdC. Genetic Assignment Tests to Identify the Probable Geographic Origin of a Captive Specimen of Military Macaw (Ara militaris) in Mexico: Implications for Conservation. Diversity. 2021; 13(6):245. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060245

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rivera-Ortíz, Francisco A., Jessica Juan-Espinosa, Sofía Solórzano, Ana M. Contreras-González, and María d.C. Arizmendi 2021. "Genetic Assignment Tests to Identify the Probable Geographic Origin of a Captive Specimen of Military Macaw (Ara militaris) in Mexico: Implications for Conservation" Diversity 13, no. 6: 245. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13060245

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