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Review

Historical and Contemporary Diversity of Galaxiids in South America: Biogeographic and Phylogenetic Perspectives

1
Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Casilla 297, Concepción 4090541, Chile
2
CIBAS, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Casilla 297, Concepción 4090541, Chile
3
Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H4R2, Canada
4
Departamento de Sistemas Acuáticos, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Centro EULA, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2020, 12(8), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12080304
Received: 27 May 2020 / Revised: 27 July 2020 / Accepted: 28 July 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Genetics and Biogeography of Galaxiid Fishes)
Galaxiid fishes from South America are represented by three genera (Aplochiton, Brachygalaxias and Galaxias) and eight species. Their genetic patterns have been studied over the last two decades to disentangle how historical and contemporary processes influenced their biogeographic distribution and phylogeographic patterns. Here we review and synthesize this body of work. Phylogeographic approaches reveal the important role played by orogeny and the expansion/melting of glacial ice during the Quaternary. Populations retreated to glacial refugia during glacial times and some systems experienced drainage reversals from the Atlantic to the Pacific following deglaciation. Although most species expanded their populations and increased their genetic diversity during the Holocene, the introduction of salmonids and the construction of dams are likely to lead to a decline in genetic diversity for at least some species. An improvement in our understanding of the processes that influenced historical and contemporary diversity patterns among galaxiid and other native fishes in South America is necessary for addressing the cumulative and synergistic impacts of human activity on this unique freshwater fauna. View Full-Text
Keywords: Galaxiidae; fish; Patagonia; genetics; phylogeny Galaxiidae; fish; Patagonia; genetics; phylogeny
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vera-Escalona, I.; Delgado, M.L.; Habit, E.; Ruzzante, D.E. Historical and Contemporary Diversity of Galaxiids in South America: Biogeographic and Phylogenetic Perspectives. Diversity 2020, 12, 304. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12080304

AMA Style

Vera-Escalona I, Delgado ML, Habit E, Ruzzante DE. Historical and Contemporary Diversity of Galaxiids in South America: Biogeographic and Phylogenetic Perspectives. Diversity. 2020; 12(8):304. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12080304

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vera-Escalona, Iván, M. L. Delgado, Evelyn Habit, and Daniel E. Ruzzante 2020. "Historical and Contemporary Diversity of Galaxiids in South America: Biogeographic and Phylogenetic Perspectives" Diversity 12, no. 8: 304. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12080304

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