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Open AccessArticle

Identifying Mechanisms for Successful Ecological Restoration with Salvaged Topsoil in Coastal Sage Scrub Communities

1
Center for Environmental Biology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-1450, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
3
Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
4
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
5
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
6
U.S. Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Moab, UT 84532, USA
7
UCI-Nature, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally.
Diversity 2020, 12(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12040150
Received: 16 February 2020 / Revised: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 12 April 2020 / Published: 14 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Interactions with Invasive Plant Species)
Although aboveground metrics remain the standard, restoring functional ecosystems should promote both aboveground and belowground biotic communities. Restoration using salvaged soil—removal and translocation of topsoil from areas planned for development, with subsequent deposition at degraded sites—is an alternative to traditional methods. Salvaged soil contains both seed and spore banks, which may holistically augment restoration. Salvaged soil methods may reduce non-native germination by burying non-native seeds, increase native diversity by adding native seeds, or transfer soil microbiomes, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to recipient sites. We transferred soil to three degraded recipient sites and monitored soil microbes, using flow cytometry and molecular analyses, and characterized the plant community composition. Our findings suggest that salvaged soil at depths ≥5 cm reduced non-native grass cover and increased native plant density and species richness. Bacterial abundance at recipient sites were statistically equivalent to donor sites in abundance. Overall, topsoil additions affected AMF alpha diversity and community composition and increased rhizophilic AMF richness. Because salvaged soil restoration combines multiple soil components, including native plant and microbial propagules, it may promote both aboveground and belowground qualities of the donor site, when applying this method for restoring invaded and degraded ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal sage scrub; salvaged topsoil; restoration; soil microbes; seed bank; non-native invasive species; mycorrhizal fungi; AMF; fungal traits; rhizophilic AM fungi coastal sage scrub; salvaged topsoil; restoration; soil microbes; seed bank; non-native invasive species; mycorrhizal fungi; AMF; fungal traits; rhizophilic AM fungi
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Schmidt, K.T.; Maltz, M.; Ta, P.; Khalili, B.; Weihe, C.; Phillips, M.; Aronson, E.; Lulow, M.; Long, J.; Kimball, S. Identifying Mechanisms for Successful Ecological Restoration with Salvaged Topsoil in Coastal Sage Scrub Communities. Diversity 2020, 12, 150.

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