Deforestation transforms habitats, displacing vertebrates and the other dimensions of biodiversity they support through their interactions. Few empirical studies have quantified the effect deforestation has on vertebrate–pollinator interaction networks. Here we quantify how hummingbird–plant networks change in relation to hummingbird diversity across a deforestation gradient. We found that, overall, hummingbird–plant interactions were significantly more specialized in forests and specialized interactions decayed rapidly with the loss of tree cover at small spatial scales. Hummingbird species interaction specialization was also higher in forest habitats compared to coffee plantations, but we found no support for a morphological hummingbird trait that predicted interaction specialization or forest dependence. Finally, we developed spatially explicit models for quantifying impacts of land-use decisions on hummingbird species and the biodiversity they support. These tools can be used to identify and prioritize important habitats for conservation activities, like creating new protected areas and improving agricultural lands for biodiversity.
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