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Phylogeny and Biogeography of Branchipolynoe (Polynoidae, Phyllodocida, Aciculata, Annelida), with Descriptions of Five New Species from Methane Seeps and Hydrothermal Vents

1
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0202, USA
2
Observatoire Oceanologique de Banyuls-sur-Mer, UMR 8222 CNRS-SU, 1 avenue Pierre Fabre, 66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2019, 11(9), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11090153
Received: 2 August 2019 / Revised: 24 August 2019 / Accepted: 27 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
The four named species of Branchipolynoe all live symbiotically in mytilid mussels (Bathymodiolus) that occur at hydrothermal vents or methane seeps. Analyses using mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (ITS) genes, as well as morphology, were conducted on a collection of Branchipolynoe from Pacific Costa Rican methane seeps and West Pacific hydrothermal vents. This revealed five new species of Branchipolynoe, and these are formally described. The new species from Costa Rica live in three species of Bathymodiolus mussels (also new) at depths ranging from 1000 to 1800 m. Branchipolynoe kajsae n. sp. and Branchipolynoe halliseyae n. sp. were found in all three undescribed Bathymodiolus species, while Branchipolynoe eliseae n. sp. was found in Bathymodiolus spp. 1 and 2, and Branchipolynoe meridae n. sp. was found in Bathymodiolus spp. 1 and 3. Hence, Bathymodiolus sp. 1 hosted all four of the new species, while the other two Bathymodiolus hosted three each. Most mussels contained only one specimen of Branchipolynoe; where there was more than one, these were often a female and smaller male of the same species. The newly discovered species from the West Pacific, Branchipolynoe tjiasmantoi n. sp., lives in unidentified Bathymodiolus at depths ranging from 674 to 2657 m from hydrothermal vents in the North Fiji (Fiji) and Lau Basins (Tonga) and also from New Zealand, Vanuatu, and the Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). The phylogenetic and biogeographical implications of this diversity of Branchipolynoe are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep sea; taxonomy; Pacific Ocean; chemosynthetic environment; methane seep deep sea; taxonomy; Pacific Ocean; chemosynthetic environment; methane seep
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Lindgren, J.; Hatch, A.S.; Hourdez, S.; Seid, C.A.; Rouse, G.W. Phylogeny and Biogeography of Branchipolynoe (Polynoidae, Phyllodocida, Aciculata, Annelida), with Descriptions of Five New Species from Methane Seeps and Hydrothermal Vents. Diversity 2019, 11, 153.

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