Next Article in Journal
Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) Infecting the Gill Lamellae of Flatheads (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae), with Proposal of Platycephalotrema n. gen. and Descriptions of New Species from Australia and Japan
Next Article in Special Issue
A Multireference-Based Whole Genome Assembly for the Obligate Ant-Following Antbird, Rhegmatorhina melanosticta (Thamnophilidae)
Previous Article in Journal
Immediate Effects of Hurricanes on a Diverse Coral/Mangrove Ecosystem in the U.S. Virgin Islands and the Potential for Recovery
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparative Phylogenomics, a Stepping Stone for Bird Biodiversity Studies
Open AccessArticle

The Vertebrate TLR Supergene Family Evolved Dynamically by Gene Gain/Loss and Positive Selection Revealing a Host–Pathogen Arms Race in Birds

1
CIIMAR/CIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos, s/n, 4450-208 Porto, Portugal
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
3
Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, 1500 Remount Road, Front Royal, VA 22630, USA
4
The Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit, Museum Support Center MRC-534, Smithsonian Institution, 4210 Silver Hill Rd. Suitland, MD 20746, USA
5
Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199004, Russia
6
Guy Harvey Oceanographic Center, Halmos College of Natural Sciences and Oceanography, Nova Southeastern University, 8000 N. Ocean Drive, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33004, USA
7
Section for Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
8
China National GeneBank, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
9
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
10
Laboratory of Neurogenetics of Language, Box 54, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
11
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, ML 20815, USA
12
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Volgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2019, 11(8), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/d11080131
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 1 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomic Analyses of Avian Evolution)
The vertebrate toll-like receptor (TLRs) supergene family is a first-line immune defense against viral and non-viral pathogens. Here, comparative evolutionary-genomics of 79 vertebrate species (8 mammals, 48 birds, 11 reptiles, 1 amphibian, and 11 fishes) revealed differential gain/loss of 26 TLRs, including 6 (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR14, TLR21, and TLR22) that originated early in vertebrate evolution before the diversification of Agnatha and Gnathostomata. Subsequent dynamic gene gain/loss led to lineage-specific diversification with TLR repertoires ranging from 8 subfamilies in birds to 20 in fishes. Lineage-specific loss of TLR8-9 and TLR13 in birds and gains of TLR6 and TLR10-12 in mammals and TLR19-20 and TLR23-27 in fishes. Among avian species, 5–10% of the sites were under positive selection (PS) (omega 1.5–2.5) with radical amino-acid changes likely affecting TLR structure/functionality. In non-viral TLR4 the 20 PS sites (posterior probability PP > 0.99) likely increased ability to cope with diversified ligands (e.g., lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic). For viral TLR7, 23 PS sites (PP > 0.99) possibly improved recognition of highly variable viral ssRNAs. Rapid evolution of the TLR supergene family reflects the host–pathogen arms race and the coevolution of ligands/receptors, which follows the premise that birds have been important vectors of zoonotic pathogens and reservoirs for viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: gene gain; gene loss; vertebrates; toll-like receptors; immune response; host–pathogen; positive selection gene gain; gene loss; vertebrates; toll-like receptors; immune response; host–pathogen; positive selection
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, I.; Maldonado, E.; Silva, L.; Almeida, D.; Johnson, W.E.; O’Brien, S.J.; Zhang, G.; Jarvis, E.D.; Gilbert, M.T.P.; Antunes, A. The Vertebrate TLR Supergene Family Evolved Dynamically by Gene Gain/Loss and Positive Selection Revealing a Host–Pathogen Arms Race in Birds. Diversity 2019, 11, 131. https://doi.org/10.3390/d11080131

AMA Style

Khan I, Maldonado E, Silva L, Almeida D, Johnson WE, O’Brien SJ, Zhang G, Jarvis ED, Gilbert MTP, Antunes A. The Vertebrate TLR Supergene Family Evolved Dynamically by Gene Gain/Loss and Positive Selection Revealing a Host–Pathogen Arms Race in Birds. Diversity. 2019; 11(8):131. https://doi.org/10.3390/d11080131

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Imran; Maldonado, Emanuel; Silva, Liliana; Almeida, Daniela; Johnson, Warren E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. T.P.; Antunes, Agostinho. 2019. "The Vertebrate TLR Supergene Family Evolved Dynamically by Gene Gain/Loss and Positive Selection Revealing a Host–Pathogen Arms Race in Birds" Diversity 11, no. 8: 131. https://doi.org/10.3390/d11080131

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop