The marine bioprospecting could be considered as a new phenomenon, and already potentially more promising than terrestrial one in terms of possible discovery of new compounds. The secondary metabolites produced by associated-bacteria are actually studied for their remarkable role in several fields, including agricultural, industrial, medical, and bioremediation strategies against different contaminants. The use of such renewable sources could be helpful in the streamlining of the patenting process for natural compounds of good quality, produced with lower energy costs and less impact on the environment. Anyway, more improvements in the research and application of bioactive compounds as alternative to the synthetic counterparts have to be carried out for the costs reduction and the large-scale production upgrading. The use of marine invertebrates could help to overcome these difficulties, as hotspots of microbial diversity and favorable matrix for the development of conditions stimulating the production of substances with special activities. This review will deal with the current accepted definitions and recent advances concerning: (i
) the marine symbiotic relationships in which microorganisms and invertebrates are involved; (ii
) the principal taxa of marine invertebrates that establish interactions with microorganisms, the biodiversity of these latter, and their role in the symbiosis; (iii
) we address the state of current literature and knowledge about the bacterial associated communities specialized in biosurfactants (BSs) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) production; and, (iv
) their potential biotechnological applications reported still now.
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