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Hereditary Prostate Cancer: Genes Related, Target Therapy and Prevention

1
Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via L. De Crecchio, 80138 Naples, Italy
2
U.O.C. Clinical and Molecular Pathology, A.O.U. University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naple, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emanuela Viggiano
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3753; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073753
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 27 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 4 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Medical Genetics)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is globally the second most diagnosed cancer type and the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Family history of PCa, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and Lynch syndromes (LS), are among the most important risk factors compared to age, race, ethnicity and environmental factors for PCa development. Hereditary prostate cancer (HPCa) has the highest heritability of any major cancer in men. The proportion of PCa attributable to hereditary factors has been estimated in the range of 5–15%. To date, the genes more consistently associated to HPCa susceptibility include mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) and homologous recombination genes (BRCA1/2, ATM, PALB2, CHEK2). Additional genes are also recommended to be integrated into specific research, including HOXB13, BRP1 and NSB1. Importantly, BRCA1/BRCA2 and ATM mutated patients potentially benefit from Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP inhibitors, through a mechanism of synthetic lethality, causing selective tumor cell cytotoxicity in cell lines. Moreover, the detection of germline alterations in MMR genes has therapeutic implications, as it may help to predict immunotherapy benefits. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of the genetic basis for inherited predisposition to PCa, the potential target therapy, and the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk PCa. Finally, the current PCa guideline recommendations are reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: hereditary prostate cancer; genetic testing; genotype–phenotype correlation; surveillance hereditary prostate cancer; genetic testing; genotype–phenotype correlation; surveillance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vietri, M.T.; D’Elia, G.; Caliendo, G.; Resse, M.; Casamassimi, A.; Passariello, L.; Albanese, L.; Cioffi, M.; Molinari, A.M. Hereditary Prostate Cancer: Genes Related, Target Therapy and Prevention. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3753. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073753

AMA Style

Vietri MT, D’Elia G, Caliendo G, Resse M, Casamassimi A, Passariello L, Albanese L, Cioffi M, Molinari AM. Hereditary Prostate Cancer: Genes Related, Target Therapy and Prevention. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(7):3753. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073753

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vietri, Maria T., Giovanna D’Elia, Gemma Caliendo, Marianna Resse, Amelia Casamassimi, Luana Passariello, Luisa Albanese, Michele Cioffi, and Anna M. Molinari 2021. "Hereditary Prostate Cancer: Genes Related, Target Therapy and Prevention" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 7: 3753. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073753

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