Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Among many different roles, MeCP2 has a high phenotypic impact during the different stages of brain development. Thus, it is essential to intensively investigate the function of MeCP2, and its regulated targets, to better understand the mechanisms of the disease and inspire the development of possible therapeutic strategies. Several animal models have greatly contributed to these studies, but more recently human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been providing a promising alternative for the study of RTT. The rapid evolution in the field of hPSC culture allowed first the development of 2D-based neuronal differentiation protocols, and more recently the generation of 3D human brain organoid models, a more complex approach that better recapitulates human neurodevelopment in vitro. Modeling RTT using these culture platforms, either with patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) or genetically-modified hPSCs, has certainly contributed to a better understanding of the onset of RTT and the disease phenotype, ultimately allowing the development of high throughput drugs screening tests for potential clinical translation. In this review, we first provide a brief summary of the main neurological features of RTT and the impact of MeCP2 mutations in the neuropathophysiology of this disease. Then, we provide a thorough revision of the more recent advances and future prospects of RTT modeling with human neural cells derived from hPSCs, obtained using both 2D and organoids culture systems, and its contribution for the current and future clinical trials for RTT.
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